Is magnesium citrate treatment effective on pain, clinical parameters and functional status in patients with fibromyalgia?
Rheumatol Int. 2013 Jan;33(1):167-72.
Bagis S, Karabiber M, As I, Tamer L, Erdogan C, Atalay A.
The aims of this study were to investigate the relationship between magnesium levels and fibromyalgia symptoms and to determine the effect of magnesium citrate treatment on these symptoms. Sixty premenopausal women diagnosed with fibromyalgia according to the ACR criteria and 20 healthy women whose age and weight matched the premenopausal women were evaluated. Pain intensity, pain threshold, the number of tender points, the tender point index, the fibromyalgia impact questionnaire (FIQ), the Beck depression and Beck anxiety scores and patient symptoms were evaluated in all the women. Serum and erythrocyte magnesium levels were also measured. The patients were divided into three groups. The magnesium citrate (300 mg/day) was given to the first group (n = 20), amitriptyline (10 mg/day) was given to the second group (n = 20), and magnesium citrate (300 mg/day) amitriptyline (10 mg/day) treatment was given to the third group (n = 20). All parameters were reevaluated after the 8 weeks of treatment. The serum and erythrocyte magnesium levels were significantly lower in patients with fibromyalgia than in the controls. Also there was a negative correlation between the magnesium levels and fibromyalgia symptoms. The number of tender points, tender point index, FIQ and Beck depression scores decreased significantly with the magnesium citrate treatment. The combined amitriptyline magnesium citrate treatment proved effective on all parameters except numbness. Low magnesium levels in the erythrocyte might be an etiologic factor on fibromyalgia symptoms. The magnesium citrate treatment was only effective tender points and the intensity of fibromyalgia. However, it was effective on all parameters when used in combination with amitriptyline.
The use of D-ribose in chronic fatigue syndrome and fibromyalgia: a pilot study.
J Altern Complement Med. 2006 Nov;12(9):857-62.
Teitelbaum JE, Johnson C, St Cyr J.
OBJECTIVES: Fibromyalgia (FMS) and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) are debilitating syndromes that are often associated with impaired cellular energy metabolism. As D-ribose has been shown to increase cellular energy synthesis in heart and skeletal muscle, this open-label uncontrolled pilot study was done to evaluate if D-ribose could improve symptoms in fibromyalgia and/or chronic fatigue syndrome patients.
DESIGN: Forty-one (41) patients with a diagnosis of FMS and/or CFS were given D-ribose, a naturally occurring pentose carbohydrate, at a dose of 5 g t.i.d. for a total of 280 g. All patients completed questionnaires containing discrete visual analog scales and a global assessment pre- and post-D-ribose administration.
RESULTS: D-ribose, which was well-tolerated, resulted in a significant improvement in all five visual analog scale (VAS) categories: energy; sleep; mental clarity; pain intensity; and well-being, as well as an improvement in patients’ global assessment. Approximately 66% of patients experienced significant improvement while on D-ribose, with an average increase in energy on the VAS of 45% and an average improvement in overall well-being of 30% (p < 0.0001).
CONCLUSIONS: D-ribose significantly reduced clinical symptoms in patients suffering from fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue syndrome.
Neuroendocrine and hormonal perturbations and relations to the serotonergic system in fibromyalgia patients.
Scand J Rheumatol Suppl. 2000;113:8-12.
The symptomatology of the fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) often resembles an alteration in central nervous set points at least in three systems. The patients suffer under chronic pain in the region of the locomotor system, presumably reflecting a disturbed central processing of pain. Anxiety and depression often characterizes the clinical picture. Almost all of the hormonal feedback mechanisms controlled by the hypothalamus are altered. Characteristic for FMS patients are the elevated basal values of ACTH, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and cortisol as well as lowered basal values of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1, somatomedin C), free triiodothyronine (FT3), and oestrogen. In FMS patients, the systemic administration of the relevant releasing hormones of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH), thyreotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), and luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) leads to increased secretion of ACTH and prolactin, whereas the degree to which TSH can be stimulated is reduced. The stimulation of the hypophysis with LHRH in female FMS patients during their follicular phase results in a significantly reduced LH response. All in all, the typical alterations in set points of hormonal regulation that are typical for FMS patients can be explained as a primary stress activation of hypothalamic CRH neurons caused by the chronic pain. In addition to the stimulation of pituitary ACTH secretion, CRH activates somatostatin on the hypothalamic level, which in turn inhibits the release of GH and TSH on the hypophyseal level. The lowered oestrogen levels could be accounted for both via an inhibitory effect of the CRH on the hypothalamic release of LHRH or via a direct CRH-mediated inhibition of the FSH-stimulated oestrogen production in the ovary. Serotonin (5HT), precursors like tryptophan (5HTP), drugs which release 5HT or act directly on 5HT receptors stimulate HPA axis, indicating a stimulatory serotonergic influence on HPA axis function. Therefore activation of the HPA axis may reflect an elevated serotonergic tonus in the central nervous system of FMS patients.
Fibromyalgia and migraine, two faces of the same mechanism. Serotonin as the common clue for pathogenesis and therapy.
Adv Exp Med Biol. 1996;398:373-9.
Nicolodi M, Sicuteri F.
In this study fibromyalgia sufferers were randomly administered a combination of monoamine-oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs)-A/B with 5-HTP, 5-HTP alone, MAOIs-A/B alone, or the tricyclic drug amitriptyline in order to compare the efficacy of these treatments. The benefits on the painful syndrome were assessed by using Visual Analogic Scale score rating from 0 to 4. The combination of MAOIs with 5-HTP significantly improved fibromyalgia syndrome as determined by Visual Analogic Scale whereas the other treatments yielded poorer benefits. No subject withdrew from the trial due to adverse effects, even if some sleep disturbances and mild stomach-ache were reported. The tolerability of the association MAOIs/5-HTP was good, although a transient cheese effect occurred in one of the patients treated with MAOIs as well as in a patient treated with the association MAOIs and 5-HTP. No one of these two cases was due to pharmacological dietetic mistake of the patient. In both the cases the transient hypertension was associated to very dramatic emotional events. The benefits obtained by using the combination of MAOIs with 5-HTP can be explained with a treatment-induced enhancement of aminergic and serotonergic transmission. The recently shown high prevalence of migraine in the population of fibromyalgia sufferers, suggests a common ground shared by fibromyalgia and migraine. Migraine has been demonstrated to be characterized by a defect in the serotonergic and adrenergic systems. A parallel dramatic failure of serotonergic systems and a defect of adrenergic transmission have been evidenced to affect fibromyalgia sufferers too. Enhancing serotonergic analgesia while increasing adrenergically mediated analgesia seems to be an important tool in fibromyalgia. Treatment consisting with the association MAOIs/5-HTP is aimed at enhancing serotonergic/adrenergic transmission by inducing an up-regulation of serotonergic/adrenergic receptors and a simultaneous increase of serotonin levels in the central nervous system.
Treatment of fibromyalgia syndrome with Super Malic: a randomized, double blind, placebo controlled, crossover pilot study.
Russell IJ, Michalek JE, Flechas JD, Abraham GE.
J Rheumatol. 1995 May;22(5):953-8.
OBJECTIVE: To study the efficacy and safety of Super Malic, a proprietary tablet containing malic acid (200 mg) and magnesium (50 mg), in treatment of primary fibromyalgia syndrome (FM).
METHODS: Twenty-four sequential patients with primary FM were randomized to a fixed dose (3 tablets bid), placebo controlled, 4-week/course, pilot trial followed by a 6-month, open label, dose escalation (up to 6 tablets bid) trial. A 2-week, medication free, washout period was required before receiving treatment, between blinded courses, and again before starting open label treatment. The 3 primary outcome variables were measures of pain and tenderness but functional and psychological measures were also assessed.
RESULTS: No clear treatment effect attributable to Super Malic was seen in the blinded, fixed low dose trial. With dose escalation and a longer duration of treatment in the open label trial, significant reductions in the severity of all 3 primary pain/tenderness measures were obtained without limiting risks.
CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that Super Malic is safe and may be beneficial in the treatment of patients with FM. Future placebo-controlled studies should utilize up to 6 tablets of Super Malic bid and continue therapy for at least 2 months.
Primary fibromyalgia syndrome and 5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan: a 90-day open study.
J Int Med Res. 1992 Apr;20(2):182-9.
Sarzi Puttini P, Caruso I.
The efficacy and tolerability of 5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan (5-HTP) were studied in an open 90-day study in 50 patients affected by primary fibromyalgia syndrome. When all the clinical variables studied throughout the trial (number of tender points, anxiety, pain intensity, quality of sleep, fatigue) were compared with baseline results, they all showed a significant improvement (P less than 0.001). The overall evaluation of the patient condition assessed by the patient and the investigator indicated a ‘good’ or ‘fair’ clinical improvement in nearly 50% of the patients during the treatment period. A total of 15 (30%) patients reported side-effects but only one patient was withdrawn from the treatment for this reason. No abnormality in the laboratory evaluation was observed. It is concluded that 5-HTP is effective in improving the symptoms of primary fibromyalgia syndrome and that it maintains its efficacy throughout the 90-day period of treatment.
Double-blind study of 5-hydroxytryptophan versus placebo in the treatment of primary fibromyalgia syndrome.
J Int Med Res. 1990 May-Jun;18(3):201-9.
Caruso I, Sarzi Puttini P, Cazzola M, Azzolini V.
A double-blind, placebo-controlled study of the efficacy and tolerability of 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) was conducted in 50 patients with primary fibromyalgia syndrome. All the clinical parameters studied were significantly improved by treatment with 5-HTP and only mild and transient side-effects were reported. Further controlled studies are required to define properly the value of 5-HTP in patients with primary fibromyalgia syndrome.