(Adult): Take 1-3 capsules daily with/without food, or as directed by a qualified health care practitioner.
Get the Most from Your Magnesium
Magnesium is involved in over 300 biochemical processes in the body. One of its most important functions is that it plays a key role in energy production. This makes it vitally important for all cellular functions and processes. It also helps maintain normal muscle and nerve function, keeps heart rhythm regular, supports a healthy immune system, relaxes muscles, supports mood and keeps bones strong. The problem with this essential mineral is that most people do not consume sufficient levels for optimal health. Evidence shows that 60-90% of people are deficient in magnesium. To offset a chronic magnesium deficiency, many people find it very helpful to supplement with magnesium to reduce muscle spasms, restless legs, headaches, high blood pressure, and constipation. Various forms of magnesium are available and they all differ as to how well they are absorbed. For example, magnesium oxide is not well absorbed and can have a laxative effect, while magnesium glycinate or magnesium aspartate are much better tolerated and absorbed. With each different form having its own unique benefits, it can be difficult to choose which one to take for optimal health benefits.
Advanced Magnesium Complex is a highly bioavailable formula that combines four superior sources of magnesium into one comprehensive magnesium supplement. This formula includes magnesium aspartate, magnesium ascorbate, magnesium malate and magnesium glycinate. Magnesium ascorbate provides vitamin C, while magnesium aspartate reduces chronic fatigue and improves energy. Magnesium malate helps reduce muscle pain and supports muscle function, and magnesium glycinate is one of the most well-tolerated and well-absorbed forms of magnesium because it is transported as a whole compound across the intestinal wall, reducing the risk of diarrhea. It also provides glycine, a calming amino acid. Each source of magnesium provided is easily absorbed and delivers additional benefits beyond just those of the magnesium, making this the most advanced magnesium supplement available.
Advanced Magnesium Complex provides four sources of magnesium and helps the body to metabolize carbohydrates, proteins and fats, supports tissue and connective tissue formation and helps in the development and maintenance of cartilage, bones, teeth and gums. Advanced Magnesium Complex also helps in wound healing, maintenance of proper muscle function and is an antioxidant for the maintenance of good health.
|Amount Per Serving Amount: 1 Capsule|
|100 mg Vitamin C (magnesium ascorbate)|
|*Provides 480 mg glycine, 50 mg aspartate, 50 mg malate.|
|Non-medicinal ingredients: sodium stearyl fumarate. Capsule: hypromellose.|
AOR™ guarantees that all ingredients have been declared on the label. Contains no wheat, gluten, peanuts, sesame seeds, sulphites, mustard, soy, dairy, eggs or any animal byproduct.
(Adult): Take 1-3 capsules daily with/without food, or as directed by a qualified health care practitioner.
The information and product descriptions appearing on this website are for information purposes only, and are not intended to provide or replace medical advice to individuals from a qualified health care professional. Consult with your physician if you have any health concerns, and before initiating any new diet, exercise, supplement, or other lifestyle changes.
Introducing the Most Advanced Magnesium Complex Available
Advanced Magnesium Complex is a highly bioavailable formula that combines four types of magnesium into one comprehensive magnesium supplement to ensure the body’s magnesium needs are met. This formula includes Magnesium Aspartate, Magnesium Ascorbate, Magnesium Malate and Magnesium Glycinate. These four forms of magnesium were included in the formula as they are the forms that various body systems can most easily metabolize, and each form provides more benefits than just magnesium!
Why So Many Forms?
Magnesium ascorbate was included in the formula because magnesium and vitamin C are both beneficial for the heart among other things, and because decreased serum magnesium is correlated with decreased serum vitamin C. The malate and aspartate ions are present in the formula in equal amounts for the support of the malate/aspartate shuttle involved with energy production in the body. Malate and aspartate are both included to ensure that the aspartate does not cause excessive stimulation in the body. Magnesium glycinate is included as the primary source of magnesium, as it is the least likely to cause diarrhea.
The daily recommended intake for women is about 320 mg and about 420 mg for men. In 2004, it was estimated that almost half of Canadians do not consume enough magnesium. In a 1988 study on the prevalence of magnesium deficiency, it was reported that “Magnesium is the most under-diagnosed electrolyte abnormality.” In addition to not getting enough, people who consume high amounts of coffee, tea, alcohol, carbonated beverages and processed foods are at higher risk of deficiency. In addition, overexcretion can occur in older adults, those with gastrointestinal disorders involving diarrhea and fat malabsorption, type 2 diabetes, kidney disorders and those taking diuretics (a class of blood pressure medications) or proton pump inhibitors (a type of heartburn medication). Epidemiological studies (long term observational studies that review population statistics) have shown that regions of the world that have ‘hard’ drinking water (water which is high in minerals including magnesium) have lower mortality rates from heart attacks.
How Do You Know You’re Deficient in Magnesium?
Unfortunately, there’s no easily available commercial lab test that will provide a truly accurate reading of the magnesium status in the body’s tissues. Only 1% of magnesium in your body is distributed in your blood, making a simple magnesium blood test highly inaccurate. Some specialty labs do provide an RBC magnesium test which is reasonably accurate. Symptoms generally are the first sign of a deficiency. Early signs of magnesium deficiency include loss of appetite, headaches, PMS, nausea, fatigue, weakness and kidney stones. An ongoing magnesium deficiency can lead to more serious symptoms, including: numbness and tingling, muscle contractions and cramps, personality changes, migraines, sleep disturbances, seizures, abnormal heart rhythms and coronary spasms.
Why Is Magnesium So Important?
Magnesium is an essential nutrient that is vital for good health. This mineral is involved with at least 300 essential biochemical reactions including testosterone production, insulin sensitivity, calcium absorption, regulation of the sympathetic nervous system, immunity, protein synthesis among other activities in the body. Many people are deficient in magnesium, leaving the body vulnerable to stress, fatigue, illness, poor recovery from injury, nerve and cardiovascular problems.
Magnesium for the Heart
Magnesium is a mineral electrolyte that is in startling short supply in modern society. Too little magnesium directly affects your heart health, causing your blood pressure to elevate and dramatically raising your chances of a heart attack and/or stroke. Magnesium helps the heart muscles work together and the nerves that initiate the heartbeat to maintain their regular function and rhythm, and it minimizes the negative effects of heart ailments. As an electrolyte, magnesium helps to keep nerves and muscles active, regulate water levels, and maintain acid-base balance.
Magnesium for Relaxation and Energy
Magnesium is responsible for helping muscles relax after a contraction. This is partly how it influences cardiovascular function. Magnesium also stabilizes ATP, the energy produced in the body so that cells can function. Without magnesium, ATP degrades quickly and becomes useless.
Magnesium for DNA Repair
Magnesium also has an important role in protecting the genome. It helps to stabilize DNA, since its positive charge balances the negative charge on DNA. It is also required as a cofactor by many of the enzymes that are involved in DNA repair. Furthermore, magnesium has been suggested to help protect against oxidative stress, a main cause of genetic damage, and against systemic inflammation.
Magnesium for the Brain
An emerging area of interest is magnesium’s importance in cognitive function, migraine headaches and mood balance including mood swings in PMS.
Standalone magnesium supplements are popular among consumers looking to maintain or improve their overall health. It is well-known that typical North American diets are deficient in magnesium. If more people were aware of its benefits and just how crucial magnesium is to preserve health in numerous areas, it is likely that more people would add a bioavailable magnesium supplement to their diet.
The Bioavailability Factor
Minerals such as magnesium are combined with another molecule to stabilize the compound. Each combination, referred to as a salt (ie. magnesium oxide or citrate) or a chelate (ie. magnesium glycinate), has different absorption, bioavailability and therapeutic value. These additional molecules can really impact the medicinal value of the magnesium and some even have beneficial effects in their own right (for example, malate, aspartate, glycinate, etc.). Quality depends on the amount of magnesium in the supplement and how bioavailable it is. Bioavailability refers to the amount of magnesium in the supplement that can be assimilated by the digestive system and used for cellular activity and health benefit. For example, magnesium oxide is almost insoluble in water and the body does not absorb it very well, while magnesium citrate is quite soluble and is absorbed very well.
AOR’s Advanced Magnesium Complex provides a comprehensive magnesium formula which contains 4 of the most absorbable, effective and well-tolerated forms of magnesium. This ensures adequate absorption and usage by the body, allows for variations in individual body chemistry and requirements, and it also provides useful salt or chelate forms whose benefits extend beyond those of magnesium. Get the most out of your magnesium supplement with simply the most advanced magnesium complex available.
Magnesium & Heart Health
In 2006, cardiovascular patients received oral magnesium for 6 months. Left ventricular function (LVEF) and heart rate deflection both improved at rest and during exercise, and exercise tolerance (VO2max) improved.
Magnesium given by injection or IV has also been shown to aid recovery from heart problems. Certain heart patients were given magnesium sulfate by IV for 48 hours or placebo. A follow-up 4.8 years later showed that those who had received the magnesium had better left ventricle function (LVEF) and a lower incidence of heart problems. This shows that magnesium can play an important role in preserving long-term heart health.
This form of magnesium has increased bioavailability compared to the oxide and citrate forms. There were promising clinical trials conducted in the 1960s that found a combination of magnesium and potassium aspartates had a positive effect on fatigue, and they reduced muscle hyper-excitability. Physiologically this makes sense since both magnesium and aspartic acid are critical players in cellular energy production. This form is not common, but has been used for reducing the symptoms of chronic fatigue syndrome.
In one double-blind clinical trial involving 145 chronic fatigue syndrome patients, 85% of those given potassium and magnesium aspartates reported an increase in strength or physical activity, versus only 9% of patients taking the placebo. A second placebo-controlled study involved 84 women and 16 men who had been suffering with fatigue symptoms unrelated to depression for more than two years. Participants in the trial took either the aspartate mixture or dummy pills for periods of either two or 4-6 weeks. Over the course of 4-10 days, people taking the supplement began to awaken from their fatigue, with 87% of the fully-reacted magnesium and potassium aspartate users experiencing relief. Researchers also found that muscle hyperexcitability was significantly normalized by fully-reacted magnesium and potassium aspartates – yet the hyperexcitability of the nerves was not affected. Patients taking fully-reacted magnesium and potassium aspartates become alert, cheerful, animated and more energetic.
For more information on Magnesium Aspartate, click here to visit the Magnesium/Potassium Aspartates webpage.
Magnesium ascorbate is a significant mineral ascorbate. Unlike the other mineral ascorbates (except for sodium ascorbate), it is very difficult to overdose on this form of ascorbate. This is because the magnesium cation is very bioavailable and very effective in reversing the damage done by excess calcium, a condition shared by many older individuals. Bioavailable magnesium (as ascorbate or as magnesium-amino acid chelates; NOT the commonly taken magnesium oxide form) is very effective in mobilizing abnormally deposited calcium throughout the body. As such, it is one of the most effective (yet still least utilized) treatments available for osteoporosis.
Magnesium ascorbate also provides antioxidant vitamin C. Unlike other water-soluble vitamins, vitamin C, or ascorbic acid, doesn’t appear to act either as a catalyst or as a coenzyme. Most people think of it primarily as an antioxidant – which it is, and a crucial one at that. It can scavenge both reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species. By virtue of this scavenging activity, ascorbic acid inhibits lipid peroxidation, oxidative DNA damage and oxidative protein damage. In this renowned function as an antioxidant, ascorbic acid seems especially prominent as a protector of lipids and lipid-based nutrients. It directly protects such fat-soluble vitamins like vitamin A and vitamin E, not to mention various fatty acids from the damage caused by the excessive oxidation of free radicals.
This little-known combination has been studied for use in fibromyalgia. Since malate is a substrate in the cellular energy cycle, it can help improve ATP production, and there is some preliminary evidence that it may reduce muscle pain and tender points in fibromyalgia patients.
Two open trials have reported significant reductions in measurements of myalgic pain, as assessed by the tender point index, in fibromyalgia victims supplementing with magnesium and malic acid. The dosages have ranged from 300 to 600 mg of magnesium and 1200 to 2400 mg of malate, with most symptoms improving in approximately eight weeks.
In animal experiments, malate has been shown to increase anaerobic endurance, as measured by increased swimming times. Malic acid is the only metabolite of the citric acid cycle which correlates positively with physical activity: experimental studies show that exercise-induced mitochondrial respiration is associated with increased malate levels only; other TCA metabolites remain unchanged. As well, malic acid is a potent aluminum chelator.
Magnesium Malate for Mood
Oral magnesium treatment has been described as being effective in improving mood imbalances. Magnesium ion neuronal deficits were described to be inducible by stress hormones, excessive dietary calcium, glutamate and aspartate, as well as by dietary deficiencies of magnesium. In homeopathy, mental health indications for magnesium treatment included mood imbalances, intellectual difficulties, delusions, hallucinations, irritability, moodiness, fear and nervousness. Case histories were presented showing rapid recovery (less than 7 days) from major mood imbalances using 125–300 mg of magnesium (magnesium glycinate) with each meal and at bedtime, while restricting calcium, glutamates and aspartates. Magnesium deficiency was suggested as causing most major mood imbalances and unexplained and sudden IQ losses, and that restoration of magnesium balance was enormously important to mental health. Fortifying refined grain and drinking water with biologically available magnesium to pre-20th century levels to improve mental health and reduce mood imbalances has been recommended as a result of magnesium related research studies.
Glycine is a well-known calming amino acid. This combination has good bioavailability and it does not have a laxative effect since glycine is actively transported through the intestinal wall. It also does not cause constipation. Due to the calming and relaxing effect of both glycine and magnesium, this combination has been used successfully for helping to alleviate chronic pain, muscle hypertonicity and imbalanced mood.
Patient studies have shown rapid recovery (less than 7 days) from mood imbalances using 125-300 mg of magnesium (as glycinate and taurate) with each meal and at bedtime. Magnesium was found to be effective for the treatment of mood imbalances in general use. Related and accompanying mental illnesses in other case histories including traumatic brain injury, headache, irritability, insomnia, postpartum mood imbalance, hypersensitivity to calcium, short-term memory loss and IQ loss were also benefited.
Magnesium for Cognitive Function and Migraines
Because magnesium is known to support nerve function and mood balance, researchers have recently investigated other effects of magnesium in the brain. Research has shown that magnesium can help protect brain cells from neurodegeneration, support learning and memory, and even reduce the severity of migraine headaches. Unfortunately, many of these studies have used magnesium oxide, which is a poor choice because it’s not very soluble and thus not very absorbable or effective. These studies have found very mild effects of magnesium with several months of supplementation. It is possible that better forms of magnesium would have more pronounced effects.
Abraham GE, Flechas JD. Management of Fibromyalgia: Rationale for the Use of Magnesium and Malic Acid. Journal of Nutritional Medicine (1992) 3, 49-59.
Barragán-Rodríguez L1, Rodríguez-Morán M, Guerrero-Romero F. Efficacy and safety of oral magnesium supplementation in the treatment of depression in the elderly with type 2 diabetes: a randomized, equivalent trial. Magnes Res. 2008 Dec;21(4):218-23.
Coudray C, Rambeau M, Feillet-Coudray C, Gueux E, Tressol JC, Mazur A, Rayssiguier Y: Study of magnesium bioavailability from ten organic and inorganic Mg salts in Mg- depleted rats using a stable isotope approach. Magnes Res 2005;18:215–223.
Cox IM, Campbell MJ, Dowson DI. Red blood cell magnesium levels and the chronic fatigue syndrome (ME); a case control study and a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 1991 Mar 30; 337(8744): 757-60.
dos Santos LA, de Azeredo VB, Eloy Chaves Barbosa D, Augusta de Sá S. Seric ion level and its relationship with the symptoms of premenstrual syndrome in young women. Nutr Hosp. 2013 Nov 1;28(6):2194-200.
Eby GA, Eby KL. Rapid recovery from major depression using magnesium treatment. Med Hypotheses. 2006;67(2):362-70.
Eisinger J, Plantamura A, Marie PA, Ayavou T. Selenium and magnesium status in fibromyalgia. Magnes Res 1994 Dec; 7(3-4): 285-8.
Formica PE. The housewife syndrome. Treatment with the potassium and magnesium salts of aspartic acid. Curr Ther Res Clin Exp. 1962 Mar; 4: 98-106.
Geiss KR, Stergiou N, Jester, Neuenfeld HU, Jester HG. Effects of magnesium orotate on exercise tolerance in patients with coronary heart disease. Cardiovasc Drugs Ther. 1998 Sep; 12 Suppl 2:153-6.
Hicks JT. Treatment of fatigue in general practice: a double blind study. Clin Med. 1964 Jan; 71(1): 85-90.
Jagetia GC, Rajanikant GK, Mallikarjun Rao KV. Ascorbic acid increases healing of excision wounds of mice whole body exposed to different doses of gamma-radiation. Burns. 2007 Jan 12.
Lamontagne C, Sewell JA, Vaillancourt R, Kuhzarani C, (2012) Rapid Resolution of Chronic Back Pain with Magnesium Glycinate in a Pediatric Patient. J Pain Relief 1:101
Li W, Yu J, Liu Y, Huang X, Abumaria N, Zhu Y, Huang X, Xiong W, Ren C, Liu XG, Chui D, Liu G. Elevation of brain magnesium prevents and reverses cognitive deficits and synaptic loss in Alzheimer’s disease mouse model. J Neurosci. 2013 May 8;33(19):8423-41.
McCarty MF. Complementary Vascular-Protective Actions of Magnesium and Taurine: A Rationale for Magnesium Taurate. Medical Hypotheses (1996) 46. 89-100
McRae MP. Vitamin C supplementation lowers serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides: a meta-analysis of 13 randomized controlled trials. Journal of Chiropractic Medicine 2008;7(2):48-58.
Nagle FJ, Balke B, Ganslen RV, Davis AW. The mitigation of physical fatigue with “Spartase”. FAA Office of Aviation Medicine Reports. Rep Civ Aeromed Res Inst US. 1963 Jul;26:1-10.
Pochwat B, Szewczyk B, Sowa-Kucma M, Siwek A, Doboszewska U, Piekoszewski W, Gruca P, Papp M, Nowak G. Antidepressant-like activity of magnesium in the chronic mild stress model in rats: alterations in the NMDA receptor subunits. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2014 Mar;17(3):393-405.
Riley JM, Kim H, Averch TD, Kim HJ. Effect of Magnesium on Calcium and Oxalate Ion Binding. J Endourol. 2013 Sep 2.
Romano TJ, Stiller JW. Magnesium deficiency in fibromyalgia syndrome. J Nutr Med. 1994;4(2): 165-7.
Russell IJ, Michalek JE, Flechas JD, Abraham GE. Treatment of fibromyalgia syndrome with Super Malic: a randomized, double blind, placebo controlled, cross over pilot study. J Rheumatol 1995 May; 22(5): 953-8.
Serefko A, Szopa A, Wla? P, Nowak G, Radziwo?-Zaleska M, Skalski M, Poleszak E. Magnesium in depression. Pharmacol Rep. 2013;65(3):547-54.
Shaw DL, Chesney MA, Agersborg HP. Management of fatigue: a physiologic approach. Am J Med Sci. 1962 Jun; 243: 758-69.
Slutsky I, Abumaria N, Wu LJ, et al. Enhancement of learning and memory by elevating brain magnesium. Neuron. 2010 Jan 28;65(2):165-77
Slutsky I, Abumaria N, Wu LJ, Huang C, Zhang L, Li B, Zhao X, Govindarajan A, Zhao MG, Zhuo M, Tonegawa S, Liu G. Enhancement of learning and memory by elevating brain magnesium. Neuron. 2010 Jan 28;65(2):165-77.
Stepura OB, Tomaeva FE, Zvereva TV. Orotic acid as a metabolic agent. Vestn Ross Akad Med Nauk. 2002; (2): 39-41.
Talebi M, Goldust M. Oral magnesium; migraine prophylaxis. J Pak Med Assoc. 2013 Feb;63(2):286.
Tarighat Esfanjani A, Mahdavi R, Ebrahimi Mameghani M, Talebi M, Nikniaz Z, Safaiyan A. The effects of magnesium, L-carnitine, and concurrent magnesium-L-carnitine supplementation in migraine prophylaxis. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2012 Dec;150(1-3):42-8.
Tecklenburg SL, Mickleborough TD, Fly AD, Bai Y, Stager JM. Ascorbic acid supplementation attenuates exercise-induced bronchoconstriction in patients with asthma. Respir Med. 2007 Aug;101(8):1770-8. Epub 2007 Apr 5.
Volpe SL. Magnesium in disease prevention and overall health. Adv Nutr. 2013 May 1;4(3):378S-83S.
Yousef MI, Awad TI, Elhag FA, Khaled FA. Study of the protective effect of ascorbic acid against the toxicity of stannous chloride on oxidative damage, antioxidant enzymes and biochemical parameters in rabbits. Toxicology. 2007 Mar 18;
Zhi YF, Huang YS, Xu BS, Wang SR. [Therapy of cardiac arrhythmias. Clinical significance of potassium- and magnesium aspartate in arrhythmias]. Fortschr Med Orig. 2002;120(1):11-5. Manz M, Susilo R.
Zhongguo Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue. [Clinical investigation of the protective effects of potassium magnesium aspartate against arrhythmia and its possible anti-oxidative mechanism]. 2007 Nov;19 (11):662-6.
Enhancement of learning and memory by elevating brain magnesium.
Neuron. 2010 Jan 28;65(2):165-77.
Slutsky I, Abumaria N, Wu LJ, Huang C, Zhang L, Li B, Zhao X, Govindarajan A, Zhao MG, Zhuo M, Tonegawa S, Liu G.
Learning and memory are fundamental brain functions affected by dietary and environmental factors. Here, we show that increasing brain magnesium using a newly developed magnesium compound (magnesium-L-threonate, MgT) leads to the enhancement of learning abilities, working memory, and short- and long-term memory in rats. The pattern completion ability was also improved in aged rats. MgT-treated rats had higher density of synaptophysin-/synaptobrevin-positive puncta in DG and CA1 subregions of hippocampus that were correlated with memory improvement. Functionally, magnesium increased the number of functional presynaptic release sites, while it reduced their release probability. The resultant synaptic reconfiguration enabled selective enhancement of synaptic transmission for burst inputs. Coupled with concurrent upregulation of NR2B-containing NMDA receptors and its downstream signaling, synaptic plasticity induced by correlated inputs was enhanced. Our findings suggest that an increase in brain magnesium enhances both short-term synaptic facilitation and long-term potentiation and improves learning and memory functions.
Vitamin C supplementation lowers serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides: a meta-analysis of 13 randomized controlled trials.
Journal of Chiropractic Medicine 2008;7(2):48-58.
OBJECTIVE: Vitamin C has been shown to be an effective therapeutic for reducing total serum cholesterol, but epidemiologic studies have determined that low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol are actually better predictive measures of coronary heart disease risk. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to provide a comprehensive meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials to investigate the effect of vitamin C supplementation on LDL and HDL cholesterol as well as triglycerides in patients with hypercholesterolemia.
METHODS: Thirteen randomized controlled trials published between 1970 and June 2007 were identified using Medline and a manual search. From the 13 trials, 14 separate group populations with hypercholesterolemia and who were supplemented with at least 500 mg/d of vitamin C for between 3 and 24 weeks were entered into the meta-analysis. This meta-analysis used a random-effects model; and the overall effect sizes were calculated for changes in LDL and HDL cholesterol, as well as triglyceride concentrations.
RESULTS: The pooled estimate of effect for vitamin C supplementation on LDL and HDL cholesterol was -7.9 mg/dL (95% confidence interval [CI], -12.3 to -3.5; P = .000) and 1.1 mg/dL (95% CI, -0.2 to 2.3; not significant), respectively. The pooled estimate of effect for vitamin C supplementation on triglycerides was -20.1 mg/dL (95% CI, -33.3 to -6.8; P < .003).
CONCLUSION: Supplementation with at least 500 mg/d of vitamin C, for a minimum of 4 weeks, can result in a significant decrease in serum LDL cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations. However, there was a nonsignificant elevation of serum HDL cholesterol.
[Clinical investigation of the protective effects of potassium magnesium aspartate against arrhythmia and its possible anti-oxidative mechanism].
Zhongguo Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue. 2007 Nov;19(11):662-6.
Zhi YF, Huang YS, Xu BS, Wang SR.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the protective effects of potassium magnesium aspartate against oxidative stress status and lipid oxidative damage in the patients with angina and arrhythmia due to coronary artery disease, its therapeutic effect on arrhythmia and its possible mechanism.
METHODS: With single blind protocol, 98 patients with angina and arrhythmia due to coronary artery disease were randomly divided into (1)Experiment group (n = 65), who received routine remedy for coronary heart disease plus potassium magnesium aspartate. (2)Control group (n = 33), who received only routine therapy for coronary heart disease without potassium magnesium aspartate. Reduced glutathione (GSH), oxidized glutathione (GSSG), malondialdehyde (MDA) and oxidized low density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) in plasma of all patients were examined before and one week after treatment, all patients with arrhythmia were equipped with Holter for continuous monitoring of cardiac rhythm.
RESULTS: After one week’s treatment, the GSH level in plasma of experiment group and the ratio of GSH and GSSG (GSH/GSSG) were significantly increased comparing with control group (both P < 0.01), while GSSG, MDA and ox-LDL levels significantly lowered comparing with control group (all P < 0.01). The premature beats diminished 86.5% in experiment group, but the decrease rate in control group was only 47.4% (P < 0.01). The improvement in indexes of oxidative stress status (including GSH/GSSG, MDA and ox-LDL) and the reduction of premature beats showed close correlation with each other (all P < 0.01). No adverse effects of the drug were found after one week of administration of Potassium magnesium aspartate.
CONCLUSION: Potassium magnesium aspartate can strikingly improve oxidative stress status and decrease lipid oxidative damage in the patients with coronary heart disease, and the frequent premature beats were also significantly reduced by potassium magnesium aspartate. The analysis of above results reveals an intrinsic relationship between the improvement of oxidative stress status and the good therapeutic effects on frequent premature beats by potassium magnesium aspartate, which may suggest an involvement of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of arrhythmias.
Ascorbic acid increases healing of excision wounds of mice whole body exposed to different doses of gamma-radiation.
Burns. 2007 Jan 12;
Jagetia GC, Rajanikant GK, Mallikarjun Rao KV.
Because of the practical importance of acute radiation exposure associated with combined injuries, it is imperative to investigate the efficacy of cost-effective nutritional factors in the reconstruction of irradiated wounds. Therefore, effect of pretreatment of ascorbic acid was studied on the healing of excised wounds in mice exposed to 2, 4, 6 and 8Gy whole body gamma-radiation. A full-thickness wound was created on the dorsum of the irradiated mice and the progression of wound contraction was monitored by capturing video images of the wound at various varying days after irradiation. Irradiation caused a dose dependent delay in wound contraction and wound healing time, while ascorbic acid pretreatment resulted in a significant acceleration in the rate of wound contraction and a decrease in the mean wound healing time. To understand the mechanism of healing, collagen, hexosamine, DNA, nitrite and nitrate contents were measured in the granulation tissue of wounded mice treated with ascorbic acid before exposure to 6Gy gamma-radiation. Ascorbic acid treatment prior to irradiation enhanced the synthesis of collagen, hexosamine, DNA, nitrite and nitrate contents. The histological assessment of wound biopsy revealed an improved collagen deposition, and increase in fibroblast and vascular densities. The present study demonstrates that ascorbic acid pretreatment has a beneficial effect on the irradiated wound and could be a substantial therapeutic strategy to accelerate wound repair in irradiated wounds and in the cases of combined injury situations.
[Therapy of cardiac arrhythmias. Clinical significance of potassium- and magnesium aspartate in arrhythmias].
Fortschr Med Orig. 2002;120(1):11-5.
Manz M, Susilo R.
Potassium and magnesium deficiencies usually coexist and represent a risk factor for cardiac arrhythmias. Serum levels–in particular of magnesium–are inconclusive for establishing a possible electrolyte deficiency. Basic treatment of arrhythmia should therefore include the administration of potassium and magnesium, since the benefit is great, and the possible side effects is negligible. A placebo-controlled study involving patients with cardiac arrhythmias revealed that appreciably fewer ventricular asystoles occurred after three weeks of treatment with potassium and magnesium aspartate, even when serum levels were within the normal range prior to initiating treatment. Patients older than 50, and those with previous coronary heart disease and/or myocardial infarction derived particular benefit from this form of treatment. These results underscore the key role played by potassium and magnesium in the treatment of cardiac arrhythmias.
Treatment of fibromyalgia syndrome with Super Malic: a randomized, double blind, placebo controlled, cross over pilot study.
J Rheumatol 1995 May; 22(5): 953-8.
Russell IJ, Michalek JE, Flechas JD, Abraham GE.
OBJECTIVE. To study the efficacy and safety of Super Malic, a proprietary tablet containing malic acid (200 mg) and magnesium (50 mg), in treatment of primary fibromyalgia syndrome (FM).
METHODS: Twenty-four sequential patients withprimary FM were randomized to a fixed dose (3 tablets bid), placebo controlled, 4-week/course, pilot trial followed by a 6-month, open label, dose escalation (up to 6 tablets bid) trial. A 2-week, medication free, washout period was required before receiving treatment, between blinded courses, and again before starting open label treatment. The 3 primary outcome variables were measures of pain and tenderness but functional and psychological measures were also assessed.
RESULTS: No clear treatment effect attributable to Super Malic was seen in the blinded, fixed low dose trial. With dose escalation and a longer duration of treatment in the open label trial, significant reductions in the severity of all 3 primary pain/tenderness measures were obtained without limiting risks.
CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that Super Malic is safe and may be beneficial in the treatment of patients with FM. Future placebo-controlled studies should utilize up to 6 tablets of Super Malic bid and continue therapy for at least 2 months.
Magnesium deficiency in fibromyalgia syndrome.
J Nutr Med. 1994;4(2): 165-7.
Romano TJ, Stiller JW.
Since patients with either fibromyalgia syndrome (FS) or low magnesium (Mg) levels can have fatigue, sleep disturbance and anxiety, it was necessary to determine if some patients with FS also have low Mg levels. Both red blood cell (RBC) and plasma Mg levels were measured in 100 consecutive FS patients and 12 osteoarthritis (OA) control patients. Compared to reference laboratory and OA controls, FS patients had significantly lower RBC Mg levels. The plasma Mg levels of FS patients were no different than the reference laboratory or OA controls. Some FS patients have low Mg levels, a problem that is potentially correctable.
Selenium and magnesium status in fibromyalgia.
Magnes Res 1994 Dec; 7(3-4): 285-8.
Eisinger J, Plantamura A, Marie PA, Ayavou T.
Muscle pain has been associated with magnesium (Mg) and selenium (Se) deficiency: magnesium and selenium status were investigated in fibromyalgia (FM). Erythrocyte (E), leucocyte (L) and serum (S) magnesium, serum selenium and zinc, and vitamin B1, B2, A or E status were assessed in 22 patients with fibromyalgia and in 23 age-matched healthy controls. LMg is significantly increased (P < 0.05) and EMg slightly decreased in fibromyalgia. These magnesium abnormalities are associated with previously-reported impairment of thiamin metabolism. Antioxidant status (as well as plasma malondialdehyde) is unchanged in fibromyalgia and serum selenium levels, slightly but not significantly correlated with serum magnesium, is normal.
Management of Fibromyalgia: Rationale for the Use of Magnesium and Malic Acid.
Journal of Nutritional Medicine (1992) 3, 49-59.
Abraham GE, Flechas JD.
Primary fibromyalgia (FM) is a common clinical condition affecting mainly middle-aged women. of the etiologies previously proposed, chronic hypoxia seems the one best supported by recent biochemical and histological findings. We postulate that FM symptoms are predominantly caused by enhanced gluconeogenesis with breakdown of muscle proteins, resulting from a deficiency of oxygen and other substances needed for ATP synthesis. We present data supporting a critical role for magnesium and malate in ATP production under aerobic and hypoxic conditions; and indirect evidence for magnesium and malate deficiency in FM. After treating 15 FM patients for an average of 8 weeks with an oral dosage form with dosages of 1200–2400 mg of malate and 300–600 mg of magnesium, the tender point index (TPI) scores (x±) were 19–6±2–1 prior to treatment and 8±1.1 and 6–5±0.74 respectively, after an average of 4 and 8 weeks on the magnesium malate combination (p < 0.001). Subjective improvement of myalgia occurred within 48 h of supplementation in six FM patients, following 8 weeks of treatment, the mean TPI was 6.8 ±0.75. After 2 weeks on placebo tablets, the TPI values increased to amean ± SE of 21.5 ±1–4(p < 0.001). Again, subjective worsening of muscle pain occurs within 48 h of placebo administration. A double-blind placebo control trial is currently underway.
Red blood cell magnesium levels and the chronic fatigue syndrome (ME); a case control study and a randomised controlled trial.
Cox IM, Campbell MJ, Dowson DI.
Lancet 1991 Mar 30; 337(8744): 757-60.
The hypotheses that patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) have low red blood cell magnesium and that magnesium treatment would improve the wellbeing of such patients were tested in a case-control study and a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, respectively. In the case-control study, 20 patients with CFS had lower red cell magnesium concentrations than did 20 healthy control subjects matched for age, sex, and social class (difference 0.1 mmol/l, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.05 to 0.15). In the clinical trial, 32 patients with CFS were randomly allocated either to intramuscular magnesium sulphate every week for 6 weeks (15 patients) or to placebo (17). Patients treated with magnesium claimed to have improved energy levels, better emotional state, and less pain, as judged by changes in the Nottingham health profile. 12 of the 15 treated patients said that they had benefited from treatment, and in 7 patients energy score improved from the maximum to the minimum. By contrast, 3 of the 17 patients on placebo said that they felt better (difference 62%, 95% CI 35 to 90), and 1 patient had a better energy score. Red cell magnesium returned to normal in all patients on magnesium but in only 1 patient on placebo. The findings show that magnesium may have a role in CFS.
Treatment of fatigue in general practice: a double blind study.
Clin Med. 1964 Jan; 71(1): 85-90.
A series of 145 office patients were treated, under double blind conditions, with the aspartates for chronic fatigue. The daily dose totaled 4 Gm., by mouth. The study was continued for 18 months. When the code was broken it was determined that 46 per cent had received the active compound; 54 per cent, a placebo. The response was graded by the examiner on the basis of his evaluation of the patient at each weekly return visit. Eighty-five per cent obtained a positive effect from the active medication. Only 9 per cent reacted to the placebo. These results are comparable to other controlled clinical studies so far reported in the United States.
The mitigation of physical fatigue with “Spartase”. FAA Office of Aviation Medicine Reports.
Rep Civ Aeromed Res Inst US. 1963 Jul;26:1-10.
Nagle FJ, Balke B, Ganslen RV, Davis AW.
Pharmacological and clinical observations have indicated that Spartase – the aspartic acid salts of potassium and magnesium – takes part in the intermediary metabolism and moderates physical fatigue. In this study attempts were made to evaluate effects of the drug on work capacity before and after episodes of physically fatiguing exercises. Work capacity was determined by a standardized treadmill test. The test was repeated after the subject had been running cross-country for a period of 60 minutes, and again after another such period of 40 minutes. In this way effects of fatigue upon functional adaptability to stress become apparent. Then Spartase was taken orally in a prescribed dose for two weeks where upon the same testing procedure was re-applied. The results indicated that Spartase improved the endurance performance of untrained individuals engaging in extremely fatiguing physical work. It appeared to have no effect on highly trained individuals.
The housewife syndrome. Treatment with the potassium and magnesium salts of aspartic acid.
Curr Ther Res Clin Exp. 1962 Mar; 4: 98-106.
One hundred patients (84 housewives and the husbands of 16) in moderate financial circumstances, who complained of excessive and constant fatigue, were treated, under blind conditions, with potassium and magnesium salts of aspartic acid (aspartates). Ninety per cent of the series had no diagnosable disease. Seventy-one per cent had received no previous medical treatment for tiredness; empiric medication had been administered to the remainder with little or no therapeutic effect. A total daily dose of 4 tablets is probably necessary, but the schedule for administration need not be rigid. Twenty-six per cent of the patients received placebos in cross-over studies. A therapeutic response (definite increase in energy and strength) was obtained in 87 per cent of the treatment periods, in five to ten days (in 54 per cent by the seventh day). The patients experiencing the postviral syndrome (49 per cent of the series) exhibited a positive response. No positive reaction occurred under placebo medication. The treatment is self-limiting; about six weeks of medication seem to be required in the average case. Mild gastrointestinal intolerance was encountered in 3 per cent.
Management of fatigue: a physiologic approach.
Am J Med Sci. 1962 Jun; 243: 758-69.
Shaw DL, Chesney MA, Agersborg HP.
Fatigue is a clinical entity of sufficient import to warrant definitive therapy. Theoretical considerations of fatigue as a state of metabolic insufficiency or inefficiency have been proposed and a physiologic approach to management of the condition has been described. The potassium and magnesium salts of aspartic acid have been investigated for treatment of fatigue in more than 2,000 patients in the United States. Of this total, a series of 163 subjects, comprising a blind study, is described in detail; normal and placebo controls and a double blind cross over trial were included. This investigation demonstrated subjective and objective evidence of relief of fatigue, whether or not organic disease was associated. Positive and negative subjective results correlated well with objective data obtained with the electronic rheotome.