The clinical efficacy of a bovine lactoferrin/whey protein Ig-rich fraction (Lf/IgF) for the common cold: a double blind randomized study.
Complement Ther Med. 2013 Jun;21(3):164-71.
Vitetta L, Coulson S, Beck SL, Gramotnev H, Du S, Lewis S.
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to determine if a bovine lactoferrin/whey protein Ig-rich fraction (Lf/IgF) combination was effective in reducing the number of colds and in turn improving symptom recovery in a cohort of males and females that reported frequently contracting a cold.
DESIGN: A double blind randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial.
SETTING: One-hundred and twenty-six participants matched by age, BMI, dietary and physical parameters with self-reported frequent upper respiratory tract symptoms and infections were randomly assigned to receive 600 mg of Lf/IgF or a placebo daily for 90 days.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES AND RESULTS: A total of 90 participants (47 receiving the active and 43 placebo) completed the 90 day trial and 15 completed 45 days participation (6 in the active and 9 in the placebo group). The total number of colds recorded over the study period was 48 for the treatment group versus 112 for the placebo group (p < 0.001). The significant trend was retained when the data was corrected for medications returned (p < 0.001) and for guessing treatment allocations (p < 0.001). Non-parametric analysis demonstrated that the total number of cold-associated symptoms reported by participants that received Lf/IgF was significantly less than those in the placebo group (p < 0.05). Also, total days sick with a cold and cold severity were reduced over the clinical trial period for Lf/IgF over placebo, but the trend was not significant.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings demonstrate that the Lf/IgF combination significantly decreased the incidence of colds and the cumulative number of cold-related symptoms over placebo. This therapeutic combination may be indicated for the prevention of colds and its most common symptoms in the general population when administered as a preventative supplement.
Nutrient supplementation post ambulation in persons with incomplete spinal cord injuries: a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled case series.
Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2007 Feb;88(2):228-33.
Nash MS, Meltzer NM, Martins SC, Burns PA, Lindley SD, Field-Fote EC.
OBJECTIVE: To examine effects of protein-carbohydrate intake on ambulation performance in persons with incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI).
DESIGN: Double-blinded treatment with washout and placebo crossover.
SETTING: Academic medical center.
PARTICIPANTS: Three subjects aged 34 to 43 years with incomplete SCI at C5-T4.
INTERVENTIONS: Subjects walked to fatigue on 5 consecutive days. On fatigue, participants consumed 48g of vanilla-flavored whey and 1g/kg of body weight of carbohydrate (CH(2)O). Weekend rest followed, and the process was repeated. A 2-week washout was interposed and the process repeated using 48g of vanilla-flavored soy.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Oxygen consumed (Vo(2); in L/min), carbon dioxide evolved (Vco(2)), respiratory exchange ratio (RER: Vco(2)/Vo(2)), time (in minutes), and distance walked (in meters) were recorded. Caloric expenditure was computed as Vo(2) by time by 21kJ/L (5kcal/L) of oxygen consumed. Data were averaged across the final 2 ambulation sessions for each testing condition.
RESULTS: Despite slow ambulation velocities (range, .11-.34m/s), RERs near or above unity reflected reliance on CH(2)O fuel substrates. Average ambulation time to fatigue was 17.8% longer; distance walked 37.9% longer, and energy expenditure 12.2% greater with the whey and CH(2)O supplement than with the soy drink.
CONCLUSIONS: Whey and CH(2)O ingestion after fatiguing ambulation enhanced ensuing ambulation by increasing ambulation distance, time, and caloric expenditure in persons with incomplete SCI.
Bovine whey protein concentrate supplementation modulates maturation of immune system in suckling rats.
Br J Nutr. 2007 Oct;98 Suppl 1:S80-4.
Pérez-Cano FJ, Marín-Gallén S, Castell M, Rodríguez-Palmero M, Rivero M, Franch A, Castellote C.
During neonatal life, challenges from breast milk and microbial flora promote immune system maturation. Immunonutrition in these stages may become an important way to increase natural defence systems. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of a daily bovine milk whey protein concentrate (WPC) supplement on the intestinal and systemic immune systems in suckling rats. The composition of intraepithelial and lamina propria lymphocytes (IEL and LPL) was analysed by flow cytometry. Systemic and intestinal humoral immune responses were determined by sera Ig levels and Ig-secreting cell quantification by ELISA and ELISPOT, respectively. From birth, suckling Wistar rats were supplemented with WPC or standard infant formula (SIF). The WPC group showed the same proportion of most of the main mucosal cell subsets as the reference animals. However, in the first days of life WPC enhanced the innate immunity by increasing the NK cell proportion in both epithelial and lamina propria (LP) compartments. A rise in intestinal CD8alphaalpha IEL was also induced by WPC supplementation. A time-course of sera Ig levels and spontaneous IgA, IgM and IgG production by LPL and mononuclear cells from blood and spleen, in the WPC group, exhibited a similar pattern to those pups fed only by dam’s milk. In summary, the present results show the effects of WPC on enhancing mucosal innate immunity during early life.
Effect of whey protein to modulate immune response in children with atopic asthma.
Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2006 May-Jun;57(3):204-11.
Lothian JB, Grey V, Lands LC.
Background Levels of glutathione (GSH) in antigen-presenting cells promote a T-helper type 2 (Th2) cytokine response in mice. We have previously demonstrated that we can increase intracellular GSH levels in healthy young adults using a whey-based oral supplement (HMS90trade mark). We hypothesized that such supplementation in children with atopic asthma, a Th2 cytokine disease, would improve lung function and decrease atopy.Methods Eleven children (six females, five males; mean /-standard deviation age, 12.6 /-3.6 years; baseline forced expired volume in 1 sec (FEV1), 82.4 /-15.4%predicted), underwent spirometry, methacholine provocation testing, and blood analysis for serum IgE and lymphocyte GSH before and after 1 month of supplementation (10 g twice daily).Results Initially the IgE was 1689 /-1596 microg/l (normal range < /=240 microg/l) and lymphocyte GSH was 1.75 /-0.48 microM (normal range 1.55 /-0.33 microM). IgE significantly decreased to 1379 /-1329 microg/l (P < 0.05) following supplementation. Although no significant changes in lymphocyte GSH or FEV1 were found for the group as a whole, the two patients with significant increases in lymphocyte GSH concentrations were the only two to demonstrate reductions in methacholine provocation doses (provocative concentration causing a 20% fall in FEV1).Conclusions These results suggest a modest impact of whey protein supplementation on the cytokine response in atopic asthma. Supplementation for longer periods, or with more potent whey-based supplements, currently under development, may prove more beneficial.
Whey protein rich in -lactalbumin increases the ratio of plasma tryptophan to the sum of the other large neutral amino acids and improves cognitive performance in stress-vulnerable subjects.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. June 2002;75(6):1051-1056.
Markus CR, Olivier B and de Haan EHF.
BACKGROUND: Cognitive performance often declines under chronic stress exposure. The negative effect of chronic stress on performance may be mediated by reduced brain serotonin function. The uptake of the serotonin precursor tryptophan into the brain depends on nutrients that influence the availability of tryptophan by changing the ratio of plasma tryptophan to the sum of the other large neutral amino acids (Trp-LNAA ratio). In addition, a diet-induced increase in tryptophan may increase brain serotonergic activity levels and improve cognitive performance, particularly in high stress-vulnerable subjects.
OBJECTIVE: We tested whether -lactalbumin, a whey protein with a high tryptophan content, would increase the plasma Trp-LNAA ratio and improve cognitive performance in high stress- vulnerable subjects.
DESIGN: Twenty-three high stress-vulnerable subjects and 29 low stress-vulnerable subjects participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. All subjects conducted a memory-scanning task after the intake of a diet enriched with either -lactalbumin (-lactalbumin diet) or sodium caseinate (control diet). Blood samples were taken to measure the effect of dietary manipulation on the plasma Trp-LNAA ratio.
RESULTS: A significantly greater increase in the plasma Trp-LNAA ratio after consumption of the -lactalbumin diet than after the control diet (P = 0.0001) was observed; memory scanning improved significantly only in the high stress-vulnerable subjects (P = 0.019).
CONCLUSION: Because an increase in the plasma Trp-LNAA ratio is considered to be an indirect indication of increased brain serotonin function, the results suggest that dietary protein rich in -lactalbumin improves cognitive performance in stress-vulnerable subjects via increased brain tryptophan and serotonin activities.