(Adult): Take 1 capsule three times daily with food, or as directed by a qualified health care practitioner.
Fast Anti-Inflammatory Relief
Also known as Indian Frankincense, Boswellia serrata is a botanical with a long history of use in Ayurveda, the ancient medicine system of India. It has been traditionally used to relieve inflammation, particularly of the joints. Studies have shown that boswellia reduces inflammation and pain in rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis and has also been shown to be effective in reducing the severity of inflammatory intestinal disorders.
Boswellia extracts are safer and more potent than conventional non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Supplementation with boswellia extract has even been shown to prevent the degradation of glycosaminoglycan, one of the major components of cartilage, which cannot be said about standard NSAID medications. Interestingly, boswellia can also be used for respiratory support, as it has been shown to reduce mucous secretions in the lungs. Applications include emphysema, cystic fibrosis and chronic bronchitis among others.
AOR’s nanoVAILABLE Boswellia is a standardized, high-bioavailability extract of the resin of pure Boswellia serrata. As part of AOR’s nanoVAILABLE series, Boswellia is specially formulated to be the most absorbable and effective Boswellia serrata extract available by delivering the extract in an oil emulsion. Whether you are suffering from aching joints, intestinal inflammation, acute, or chronic inflammation due to irritation, injury or autoimmunity, nanoVAILABLE Boswellia is an excellent choice to help manage inflammation and to encourage recovery.
Boswellia is a standardized extract containing key phytonutrients which have been clinically demonstrated to help relieve pain and swelling associated with osteoarthritis of the knee. It is also used in Ayurvedic medicine to support inflammatory conditions. AOR’s nanoVAILABLE™ Boswellia is formulated with soluble boswellia extract to maximize bioavailability.
|Amount Per Serving Amount: 1 Capsule|
|333 mg Boswellia serrata extract (5:1, 40% boswellic acids)|
|Non-medicinal ingredients: potato starch, medium chain triglycerides, polysorbate 20. Capsule: hypromellose, gellan gum.|
AOR™ guarantees that all ingredients have been declared on the label. Contains no wheat, gluten, nuts, peanuts, sesame seeds, sulphites, mustard, soy, dairy, eggs, fish, shellfish or any animal byproduct.
(Adult): Take 1 capsule three times daily with food, or as directed by a qualified health care practitioner.
Consult a health care practitioner prior to use if you are pregnant, breastfeeding or for use beyond 6 months. Some people may experience mild gastrointestinal effects such as diarrhea, abdominal pain/cramps and nausea. Hypersensitivity (e.g. allergy) has been known to occur; in which case, discontinue use.
Boswellia serrata extract
The information and product descriptions appearing on this website are for information purposes only, and are not intended to provide or replace medical advice to individuals from a qualified health care professional. Consult with your physician if you have any health concerns, and before initiating any new diet, exercise, supplement, or other lifestyle changes.
The goal of AOR, since its inception, has been to provide our customers with the most advanced, science-backed products available. The problem that has plagued many dietary supplements, as well as the pharmaceutical industry, is the amount of each compound that actually makes it into the bloodstream. This is referred to as ‘bioavailability’. Over the years, many ingredients have shown incredibly promising results in early stages, when studied in vitro, with cultured cells showing remarkable transformations at the hand of many natural products. When taken by humans, however, these effects are often significantly decreased, or completely absent. The root of this problem is bioavailability. The nanoVAILABLE line from AOR takes on this problem of bioavailability, offering products with improved bioavailability through advanced processing technology.
Ayurvedic Boswellia serrata
There are many medicinal plants of great therapeutic value referred to in the ancient treatment system of Ayurveda. One particular plant of much repute is resin of the tree Boswellia serrata, or Frankincense, which the Ayurved materia medica claimed to have potent anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic properties.
Boswellia, like many herbal extracts, suffers from poor bioavailability due to poor solubility and absorption. Traditionally, up to 3 grams needs to be consumed in order to achieve any therapeutic benefit. In order to increase bioavailability, that is, to achieve greater benefits from less material, nanoVAILABLE Boswellia has been dissolved in oil, giving the smallest particles possible, and then combined with ingredients to promote the formation of an emulsion, so that the oil can be dissolved and absorbed more easily in the body.
As Good or Better than NSAIDs for Arthritis?
The mechanism of action of boswellic acids is similar to the action of NSAIDs. Prostaglandins and leukotrienes are two classes of arachidonic acid-derived mediators of inflammation. Leukotrienes, for which 5-lipooxygenase (5-LOx) is the key enzyme in synthesis, are considered to be involved in the initiation and maintenance of various inflammatory diseases, for example arthritis, Crohn’s disease, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), etc. Boswellic acids are potent inhibitors of 5-lipooxygenase products, including 5-hydroxyeiconatetraenoic acid (5HETE), and leukotriene B4 (LTB4), which cause bronchoconstriction, chemotaxis, and increased vascular permeability. Other anti-inflammatory plant constituents, such as quercetin, also block this enzyme, but they do so in a more general fashion, as an antioxidant, whereas Boswellia seems to be a specific inhibitor of 5-LOx.
It is known that non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs can cause a disruption of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) synthesis that can accelerate the articular damage in arthritic conditions.
Boswellic acids have also been shown to decrease the prevalence of matrix metalloproteinases in the synovial fluid. These enzymes are often over expressed in osteoarthritis patients, and have been implicated in the degradation of cartilage in the joints.
Other Biological Activities
Boswellia has also been observed to inhibit human leukocyte elastase (HLE), which may be involved in the pathogenesis of emphysema. HLE also stimulates mucus secretion and thus may play a role in cystic fibrosis, chronic bronchitis, and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Other uses may include respiratory problems, skin conditions, and inflammatory intestinal disorders.
Boswellia is not a very well-known herb, although its popularity is increasing. Boswellia may be one of nature’s most powerful anti-inflammatories, although clinical results may be inconsistent due to its poor bioavailability.
Look for a Boswellia extract standardized for 40% boswellic acids. Any product claiming to contain 65% boswellic acids probably contains 65% organic acids, of which 40% or less are boswellic acids. Older, less specific assay techniques do not distinguish the boswellic acid content from the organic acids.
Get more out of Boswellia with AOR’s nanoVAILABLE technology, making it more absorbable and more effective that regular extracts. AOR’s nanoVAILABLE Boswellia is a standardized extract providing 65% organic acids, of which a minimum of 40% are boswellic acids.
Ethanolic extracts of the resin demonstrated reduced carrageenan-induced paw edema in normal rats and mice as well as in adrenalectomized rats. Further, extracts showed anti-arthritic activity in formaldehyde and adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats and BSA-induced arthritis in the rabbit. In addition, the researchers found the above extract to be more beneficial, less toxic and more potent than the standard drug of choice, Ketoprofen, a widely used prescriptive Non-Steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drug (NSAID). More recently, a number of researchers have identified the anti-inflammatory activity of the ethanolic extracts of the resin to be due to boswellic acids, in particular the alpha and beta isomers. Recently, a more purified compound standardized for 40% boswellic acids and 65% organic acids has shown potent anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic activity without any of the adverse effects (e.g. gastro-intestinal, CNS and cardiovascular).
A study including 70 patients suffering from osteoarthritis of the knee has demonstrated the positive effects of boswellic acids in humans. These patients received either 100mg or 250mg of boswellic acid containing extract, or a placebo, daily for 90 days. Patients receiving either dose of boswellic acids demonstrated significant improvements in both pain and functional ability of the knee joint. Even more impressive is that patients receiving the 250mg dose showed these improvements as early as 7 days following the start of treatment and required other pain medication 72% less often than patients taking placebos.
Boswellia vs. NSAIDs
A recent in-vivo study examined Boswellia and ketoprofen for their effects on glycosaminoglycan metabolism. Boswellia significantly reduced the degeneration of GAGs compared to controls, whereas ketoprofen caused a reduction in total tissue GAG content.
Boswellia also demonstrated a marked inhibitory effect on both the classical and alternate complement systems.
An investigation of Boswellia’s analgesic and psychopharmacologic effects noted that it “was found to exhibit marked sedative and analgesic effects” in animals.
Ammon HP, Mack T, Singh GB, Safayhi H. (1991) “Inhibition of leukotriene B4 formation in rat peritoneal neutrophils by an ethanolic extract of the gum-resin exudate of Boswellia Serrata”. Planta-Med; 57: 203.
Atal CK, et al (1984) “Salai guggal a new NSAID and its probable mode of action” Recent advances in Mediators Inflammation and Anti-inflammatory Agents. Symp. Nov 2-4.
Gupta I, Gupta V, Parihar A, Gupta S, Ludtke R, Safayhi H, Ammon HP. “Effects of Boswellia serrata gum resin in patients with bronchial asthma: results of a double-blind, placebo-controlled, 6-week clinical study.” Eur J Med Res 1998 Nov 17; 3(11): 511-4.
Gupta I, Parihar A, Malhotra P, Singh GB, Ludtke R, Safayhi H, Ammon HP. “Effects of Boswellia serrata gum resin in patients with ulcerative colitis.” Eur J Med Res 1997 Jan; 2(1): 37-43.
Kimmatkar N, Thawani V, Hingorani L, Khiyani R. “Efficacy and tolerability of Boswellia serrata extract in treatment of osteoarthritis of knee–a randomized double blind placebo controlled trial.” Phytomedicine 2003 Jan; 10(1): 3-7.
Kulkarni RR, Patki PS, Jog VP, Gandage SG, Patwardhan B. (1991) “Treatment of osteoarthritis with a herbomineral formulation: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study”. J. Ethanopharmacol; 33:91.v. 11th European Congress of Rheumatology Vol 5/8-2 Suppl. Issue 1987.
Menon MK, Kar A. (1971) “Analgesic and Psychopharmacological effects of gum resin of Boswellia Serrata” Planta Medica; 19: 332-336.
Reddy GK, Chandrakasan G, Dhar SC. (1981) “Studies on the metabolism of glycoaminoglycalls under the influence of new herbal anti-inflammatory agents”. Biochemical Pharmacol., 38 3527 1989.
Reddy GK, et al (1988) “Effect of Salai guggal ex-Boswellia Serrata on cellular and humoral immune responses and leucocyte migration. “Agents and Action; 24: 161.
Safayhi H, et al (1992) “Boswellic acids: novel, specific, non-redox inhibitors of 5-lipooxygenase”. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther; 261: 1143.
Sengupta et al. A double blind, randomized, placebo controlled study of the efficacy and safety of 5-Loxin® for treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee. Arthritis Research and Therapy. 2008; 10: R85
Sharma ML, Kaul A, Khajuria A, Singh S, Singh GB. “Immunomodulatory Activity of Boswellic Acids (Pentacyclic Triterpene Acids) from Boswellia serrata.” Phytother Res. 1996 Mar; 10(2): 107-12.
Singh GB, Atal CK. (1990) “Pharmacology of an extract of Boswellia Serrata, a new non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent”. Agents Action; 18: 407-412.
Ayurvedic medicine offers a good alternative to glucosamine and celecoxib in the treatment of symptomatic knee osteoarthritis: a randomized, double-blind, controlled equivalence drug trial.
Rheumatology (Oxford). 2013 Jan 30.
Chopra A, Saluja M, Tillu G, Sarmukkaddam S, Venugopalan A, Narsimulu G, Handa R, Sumantran V, Raut A, Bichile L, Joshi K, Patwardhan B.
Objective. To demonstrate clinical equivalence between two standardized Ayurveda (India) formulations (SGCG and SGC), glucosamine and celecoxib (NSAID).
Methods. Ayurvedic formulations (extracts of Tinospora cordifolia, Zingiber officinale, Emblica officinalis, Boswellia serrata), glucosamine sulphate (2 g daily) and celecoxib (200 mg daily) were evaluated in a randomized, double-blind, parallel-efficacy, four-arm, multicentre equivalence drug trial of 24 weeks duration. A total of 440 eligible patients suffering from symptomatic knee OA were enrolled and monitored as per protocol. Primary efficacy variables were active body weight-bearing pain (visual analogue scale) and modified WOMAC pain and functional difficulty Likert score (for knee and hip); the corresponding a priori equivalence ranges were ±1.5 cm, ±2.5 and ±8.5.
Results. Differences between the intervention arms for mean changes in primary efficacy variables were within the equivalence range by intent-to-treat and per protocol analysis. Twenty-six patients showed asymptomatic increased serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT) with otherwise normal liver function; seven patients (Ayurvedic intervention) were withdrawn and SGPT normalized after stopping the drug. Other adverse events were mild and did not differ by intervention. Overall, 28% of patients withdrew from the study.
Conclusion. In this 6-month controlled study of knee OA, Ayurvedic formulations (especially SGCG) significantly reduced knee pain and improved knee function and were equivalent to glucosamine and celecoxib. The unexpected SGPT rise requires further safety assessment.
Enhanced anticancer potential of encapsulated solid lipid nanoparticles of TPD: a novel triterpenediol from Boswellia serrata.
Mol Pharm. 2013 Jan 7;10(1):225-35.
Bhushan S, Kakkar V, Pal HC, Guru SK, Kumar A, Mondhe DM, Sharma PR, Taneja SC, Kaur IP, Singh J, Saxena AK.
A pentacyclic triterpenediol (TPD) from Boswellia serrata has significant cytotoxic and apoptotic potential in a large number of human cancer cell lines. To enhance its anticancer potential, it was successfully formulated into solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) by the microemulsion method with 75% drug entrapment efficiency. SEM and TEM studies indicated that TPD-SLNs were regular, solid, and spherical particles in the range of 100-200 nm, and the system indicated that they were more or less stable upon storing up to six months. TPD loaded SLNs showed significantly higher cytotoxic/antitumor potential than the parent drug. TPD-SLNs have 40-60% higher cytotoxic and apoptotic potential than the parent drug in terms of IC(50), extent of apoptosis, DNA damage, and expression of pro-apoptotic proteins like TNF-R1, cytochrome-c, and PARP cleavage in HL-60 cells. Moreover, blank SLNs did not have any cytotoxic effect on the cancer as well as in normal mouse peritoneal macrophages. The in vivo antitumor potential of TPD-SLNs was significantly higher than that of TPD alone in Sarcoma-180 solid tumor bearing mice. Therefore, SLNs of TPD successfully increased the apoptotic and anticancer potential of TPD at comparable doses (both in vitro and in vivo). This work provides new insight into improvising the therapeutic efficacy of TPD by adopting novel delivery strategies such as solid lipid nanoparticles.
Efficacy and tolerability of Boswellia serrata extract in treatment of osteoarthritis of knee–a randomized double blind placebo controlled trial.
Phytomedicine 2003 Jan; 10(1): 3-7.
Kimmatkar N, Thawani V, Hingorani L, Khiyani R.
Osteoarthritis is a common, chronic, progressive, skeletal, degenerative disorder, which commonly affects the knee joint. Boswellia serrata tree is commonly found in India. The therapeutic value of its gum (guggulu) has been known. It possesses good anti-inflammatory, anti-arthritic and analgesic activity. A randomized double blind placebo controlled crossover study was conducted to assess the efficacy, safety and tolerability of Boswellia serrata Extract (BSE) in 30 patients of osteoarthritis of knee, 15 each receiving active drug or placebo for eight weeks. After the first intervention, washout was given and then the groups were crossed over to receive the opposite intervention for eight weeks. All patients receiving drug treatment reported decrease in knee pain, increased knee flexion and increased walking distance. The frequency of swelling in the knee joint was decreased. Radiologically there was no change. The observed differences between drug treated and placebo being statistically significant, are clinically relevant. BSE was well tolerated by the subjects except for minor gastrointestinal ADRs. BSE is recommended in the patients of osteoarthritis of the knee with possible therapeutic use in other arthritis.
Effects of Boswellia serrata gum resin in patients with bronchial asthma: results of a double-blind, placebo-controlled, 6-week clinical study.
Eur J Med Res 1998 Nov 17; 3(11): 511-4.
Gupta I, Gupta V, Parihar A, Gupta S, Ludtke R, Safayhi H, Ammon HP.
The gum resin of Boswellia serrata, known in Indian Ayurvedic system of medicine as Salai guggal, contains boswellic acids, which have been shown to inhibit leukotriene biosynthesis. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled study forty patients, 23 males and 17 females in the age range of 18 – 75 years having mean duration of illness, bronchial asthma, of 9.58 /- 6.07 years were treated with a preparation of gum resin of 300 mg thrice daily for a period of 6 weeks. 70% of patients showed improvement of disease as evident by disappearance of physical symptoms and signs such as dyspnoea, rhonchi, number of attacks, increase in FEV subset1, FVC and PEFR as well as decrease in eosinophilic count and ESR. In the control group of 40 patients 16 males and 24 females in the age range of 14-58 years with mean of 32.95 /- 12.68 were treated with lactose 300 mg thrice daily for 6 weeks. Only 27% of patients in the control group showed improvement. The data show a definite role of gum resin of Boswellia serrata in the treatment of bronchial asthma.
Effects of Boswellia serrata gum resin in patients with ulcerative colitis.
Eur J Med Res 1997 Jan; 2(1): 37-43.
Gupta I, Parihar A, Malhotra P, Singh GB, Ludtke R, Safayhi H, Ammon HP.
Ulcerative colitis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the colon where leukotrienes are suggested to play an important role for keeping inflammation active. Boswellic acids, the biologically active ingredients of the gum resin of Boswellia serrata (Sallai guggal), have been shown to be specific, nonredox and noncompetitive inhibitors of 5-lipoxygenase, the key enzyme of leukotriene biosynthesis. In patients suffering from ulcerative colitis grade II and III the effect of Boswellia serrata gum resin preparation (350 mg thrice daily for 6 weeks) on stool properties, histolopathology and scan microscopy of rectal biopsies, blood parameters including Hb, serum iron, calcium, phosphorus, proteins, total leukocytes and eosinophils was studied. Patients receiving sulfasalazine (1 g thrice daily) served as controls. All parameters tested improved after treatment with Boswellia serrata gum resin, the results being similar compared to controls: 82% out of treated patients went into remission; in case of sulfasalazine remission rate was 75%.
Immunomodulatory Activity of Boswellic Acids (Pentacyclic Triterpene Acids) from Boswellia serrata
Phytother Res. 1996 Mar; 10(2): 107-12.
Sharma ML, Kaul A, Khajuria A, Singh S, Singh GB.
Boswellic acids, a mixture of pentacyclic triterpene acids (BA) obtained from Boswellia serrata Roxb., have been investigated for their effect on cell mediated and humoral components of the immune system and the immunotoxicological potential. A single oral administration of BA (50-200 mg/kg) inhibited the expression of the 24 h delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) reaction and primary humoral response to SRBC in mice. The secondary response was appreciably enhanced at lower doses. In a multiple oral dose schedule BA (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg) reduced the development of the 24 h DTH reaction and complement fixing antibody titres and slightly enhanced the humoral antibody synthesis. In concentrations greater than 3.9 g/mL BA produced almost similar and dose related inhibition of proliferative responsiveness of splenocytes to mitogens and alloantigen. Preincubation of macrophages with different concentrations of BA enhanced the phagocytic function of adherent macrophages. Prolonged oral administration of BA (25-100 mg/kg/d×21 days) increased the body weight, total leukocyte counts and humoral antibody titres in rats. It is not cytotoxic nor does it cause immunosuppression.
Inhibition of leukotriene B4 formation in rat peritoneal neutrophils by an ethanolic extract of the gum resin exudate of Boswellia serrata.
Planta Med 1991 Jun; 57(3): 203-7.
Ammon HP, Mack T, Singh GB, Safayhi H.
Suspensions of rat peritoneal polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL) elicited with glycogen were stimulated by calcium and ionophore to produce leukotrienes and 5-HETE from endogenous arachidonic acid (AA). We investigated the effect of ethanolic extracts of the gum resin exudate of Boswellia serrata. A concentration-dependent inhibition of LTB4 and 5-HETE production by different charges of exudate extracts were found. All products of the 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOx) from endogenous arachidonic acid (AA) in PMNL were reduced to the same extent by the extracts tested. The ethanolic extract of the gum resin also decreased 5-LOx mediated metabolisation of exogenously added AA to LTB4 and 5-HETE. Since steroidal-type anti-inflammatory drugs do not exert an immediate effect in the test system used, we conclude that the activity of the 5-Lox itself represents the side of inhibition by the gum resin extract. Therefore, an inhibition of 5-LOx catalysed mediator synthesis might be involved in the previously reported anti-inflammatory activity in vivo.
Treatment of osteoarthritis with a herbomineral formulation: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study.
J Ethnopharmacol 1991 May-Jun; 33(1-2): 91-5.
Kulkarni RR, Patki PS, Jog VP, Gandage SG, Patwardhan B.
The clinical efficacy of a herbomineral formulation containing roots of Withania somnifera, the stem of Boswellia serrata, rhizomes of Curcuma longa and a zinc complex (Articulin-F), was evaluated in a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled, cross-over study in patients with osteoarthritis. After a one-month single blind run-in period, 42 patients with osteoarthritis were randomly allocated to receive either a drug treatment or a matching placebo for a period of three months. After a 15-day wash-out period the patients were transferred to the other treatment for a further period of three months. Clinical efficacy was evaluated every fortnight on the basis of severity of pain, morning stiffness, Ritchie articular index, joint score, disability score and grip strength. Other parameters like erythrocyte sedimentation rate and radiological examination were carried out on a monthly basis. Treatment with the herbomineral formulation produced a significant drop in severity of pain (P less than 0.001) and disability score (P less than 0.05). Radiological assessment, however, did not show any significant changes in both the groups. Side effects observed with this formulation did not necessitate withdrawal of treatment.
Studies on the metabolism of glycosaminoglycans under the influence of new herbal anti-inflammatory agents.
Biochem Pharmacol 1989 Oct 15; 38(20): 3527-34.
Reddy GK, Chandrakasan G, Dhar SC.
The in vivo effect of an herbal based, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory product, salai guggal, prepared from the gum resin exudate of Boswellia serrata and its active principle “boswellic acids” on glycosaminoglycan metabolism has been studied in male albino rats. The biosynthesis of sulfated glycosaminoglycans, as evaluated by the uptake of [35S]sulfate, and the content of glycosaminoglycans were measured in specimens of skin, liver, kidney and spleen. Statistical analysis of the data obtained with respect to the boswellic acids and salai guggal were compared with those of ketoprofen. A significant reduction in glycosaminoglycan biosynthesis was observed in rats treated with all of the drugs. Glycosaminoglycan content was found to be decreased in the ketoprofen-treated group, whereas that of the boswellic acids or salai guggal treated groups remained unaltered. The catabolism of glycosaminoglycans was followed by estimating the activities of lysosomal glycohydrolases, namely beta-glucuronidase, beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase, cathepsin B1, cathepsin B2 and cathepsin D, in tissues and by estimating the urinary excretion and hexosamine and uronic acid. The degradation of glycosaminoglycans was found to be reduced markedly in all drug-treated animals as compared to controls. The potentialsignificance of boswellic acids and salai guggal was discussed in the light of changes in the metabolism of glycosaminoglycans.