(Adult): Take 1 capsule three times daily with/without food, or as directed by a qualified health practitioner.
Supports the Function of the Brain
Phosphatidylserine (PS) is a phospholipid that is a structural component of cell membranes throughout the body, but is most concentrated in the brain and cerebral cortex. Research has demonstrated that supplemental PS possesses the ability to enhance cognitive function, specifically improving learning and concentration. Clinical trials have also shown PS to be effective in other forms of cognitive dysfunction such as age-associated memory impairment, and to improve mental stamina in high-end athletes.
Additionally, there is evidence that phosphatidylserine can significantly reduce levels of the hormone cortisol, which is released by the body in response to stress. Research has focused on the connection between lower cortisol levels and elevated mood.
Middle-aged and elderly people, and those with cognitive impairments, may benefit from phosphatidylserine’s memory-enhancing and brain-protecting powers. It can also support athletes and those under stress by reducing cortisol levels. Memory, learning, concentration and overall cognitive stamina can be improved by its use.
PS-100 is phosphatidylserine, a phospholipid that plays an essential role in brain cell membrane structure. Studies suggest that phosphatidylserine helps support cognitive function.
|Amount Per Serving Amount: 1 Capsule|
|100 mg Phosphatidylserine|
|Non-medicinal ingredients: microcrystalline cellulose, silicon dioxide. Capsule: hypromellose.|
AOR™ guarantees that all ingredients have been declared on the label. Contains no wheat, gluten, corn, nuts, peanuts, sesame seeds, sulphites, mustard, dairy, eggs, fish or shellfish.
(Adult): Take 1 capsule three times daily with/without food, or as directed by a qualified health practitioner.
Consult a health care practitioner if you are pregnant or breastfeeding. Contains soy. Do not use if you are allergic to soy.
The information and product descriptions appearing on this website are for information purposes only, and are not intended to provide or replace medical advice to individuals from a qualified health care professional. Consult with your physician if you have any health concerns, and before initiating any new diet, exercise, supplement, or other lifestyle changes.
PS: For the Aging Brain
Understandably, research is proceeding at a fast pace in this field, with the goal of alleviating neural deterioration at an early stage. Results from clinical trials conducted in the U.S. and Europe indicate that supplementation with phosphatidylserine (PS) can play an important role in the support of mental functions in the aging brain. PS is a phospholipid that is a structural component of biological membranes of plants, animals and other life forms. While PS is essential to the proper functioning of all cells, it is most concentrated in the brain and cerebral cortex. Supplemental PS was initially isolated from bovine brain but is now mainly extracted from soy lecithin. Phosphatidylserine is made up of a glycerophosphate frame linked to two fatty acid molecules and the amino acid L-serine.
Remember The Membrane
The primary biological role of PS in nature is to serve as a building block for cell membranes. Membranes are the complex outer layers of all cells. They are known as the ‘gatekeepers’ of the cells due to their role in determining what enters and exits the cell, and PS is a fundamental component of each and every cell membrane, effectively holding together the enzymes, transport molecules, ion pumps, receptors and other constituents of the membrane’s complex matrix. Membranes in general, and neuronal membranes in particular, are far more than just gatekeepers. They are in fact the working surfaces of the cell – and they depend on PS to perform that role. They regulate such functions as:
All of the aforementioned functions are dependent on the operative and structural integrity of the membranes for their full functional capacity and coordinated activity, and PS plays an encompassing role in that operative and structural integrity, particularly of neuronal cell membranes.
The original Phosphatidylserine used as a supplement and in clinical studies was sourced from cow brains. As this is no longer permitted in Canada, phosphatidylserine must now be sourced from a vegetarian source, which is usually soy. The effectiveness of vegetarian PS for cognitive function has been questioned recently due to the lack of positive results of one study; however, another recent study confirmed that soy-based PS did indeed support memory.
The most recent studies have suggested that combining it with Ginkgo biloba or omega-3 fatty acids might enhance the effectiveness of PS. Recent research has also been examining its potential as an ergogenic aid and a cortisol buffer in stress.
AOR’s Phosphatidylserine is vegetarian sourced. Based on the most recent clinical studies, Phosphatidylserine’s cognitive benefits might be enhanced when taken with Ginkgo biloba or an omega-3 supplement.
Studies among laboratory rats indicate that PS replenishes acetylcholine in the aging brain, a critical indicator whose depletion is an indicator of brain cell degeneration. PS appears to do this while simultaneously sparing choline for the further synthesis of acetylcholine. In order for these functions to be fully appreciated, it must be remembered that most cognitive drugs use the same principle, namely by increasing acetylcholine levels. Such drugs, known as reversible acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, perform this task by inhibiting the enzyme acetylcholinesterase that catalyzes the breakdown of acetylcholine. PS also stimulates the increased release of acetylcholine by restoring protein kinase C activity (an isoenzyme that facilitates acetylcholine production) in laboratory studies among aging rats. The dendritic neurons, located in the hippocampus of the brain and regarded as a substrate used to store and retrieve memories, tend to become sparser and diluted with age – compromising cognitive capabilities as a result. Experiments with laboratory rats have revealed that treatment with PS prevents the age-related decline in dendritic neuron density. Furthermore, scientists believe that PS’s cognitive-enhancing effects can also be attributed to its stimulation of the uptake of calcium by brain neuronal synapses (essential to the transfer of excitatory impulses).
Dendritic Neuron Density
Fig. 1: Dendritic Neuron Density; Age-associated low density (left), youthful high-density (right)
Clinical trials have also shown phosphatidylserine to be effective in age-associated memory impairment. Another multicenter study conducted among four universities (three in the US and the fourth in Italy) examined 149 subjects aged 50-75 who were suffering from varying degrees of memory impairment and were given either 300 mg of PS or a placebo for 12 weeks. The study group displayed significant improvements over the placebo group in the memory categories of: learning names and faces, recalling names and faces, facial recognition, telephone number recall, misplaced objects recall, paragraph recall, and the ability to concentrate while reading, conversing, and performing tasks. Interestingly, the most notable improvements were among the subjects who were relatively more memory-impaired.
Another study used the same dosage regimen and duration, but with a smaller number of older volunteers (51 subjects with a median age of 71). The results were similar to the aforementioned study, with improvements being noted in as early as three weeks.
Studies conducted across the U.S. and Europe have also reported similar results. One key Italian study in 1995 remains the largest and longest running double-blind trial with PS, involving 425 subjects (median age 77 years) across 23 institutions and running six months in duration. It too, followed a dosage regimen of 300 mg daily. Memory scores in the fields of (1) Total Recall, (2) Long-Term Storage, (3) Long-Term Retrieval, and (4) Long-Term Retrieval Consistent were assessed in accordance with the standardized Buschke Selective Reminding Test. Predictably, the memory and learning scores were ‘highly significant’ (p<0.01) in favour of the PS group.
Does Vegetarian PS Even Work?
All of the original trials documenting the benefits of “PS” supplements used a phosphatidylserine concentrate derived from cow brains. This product nearly vanished from the marketplace a decade ago when BSE (“mad cow disease”) swept through Britain and threatened to create an epidemic across Europe. It was replaced by a PS derived from soy. Until recently, there were only two small, nonrandomized, low-power, uncontrolled studies available to tell us about what soy-based PS might do for a person.
There has been some controversy as to whether soy-based PS actually helps memory because one study found that it had no effect. However, a study published in 2010 confirmed that 100 mg of soy-based PS did indeed support memory, especially in terms of list recall.
Finally, there have also been several studies examining phosphatidylserine’s ability to significantly reduce levels of the hormone cortisol, released by the body in response to stress. This capability has been of particular interest to athletes, but more recent research has focused on the connection between lower cortisol levels and better mood. This connection, combined with yet further clinical findings – including those revealing improved EEG alpha-rhythms – serve to establish the overall impact of phoshatidylserine in the global enhancement of brain performance, particularly on the aging brain.
Amaducc L, SMID Group. Phosphatidylserine in the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease. Results of a multicenter study. Psychopharmacol Bull. 1988; 24:130-134.
Casamenti F, Scali C, Pepeu G. Phosphatidylserine reverses the age-development decrease in cortical acetylcholine release: a microdialysis study. Eur J Pharmac. 1991; 194:11-16.
Kato-Kataoka A, Sakai M, Ebina R, Nonaka C, Asano T, Miyamori T. Soybean-derived phosphatidylserine improves memory function of the elderly Japanese subjects with memory complaints. J Clin Biochem Nutr. 2010 Nov;47(3):246-55.
Nunzi MG, Milan F, Guidolin D, Toffano G. Dendritic spine loss in hippocampus of aged rats. Effect of brain phosphatidylserine. Neurobiol Aging. 1987; 8:501-510.
Palmieri G, et al, 1987. “Double-blind controlled trial of phosphatidylserine in subjects with senile mental deterioration.” Clin. Trials J. 24: 73-83.
Sinforiani E, et al, 1987. “Cognitive decline in aging brain: therapeutic approach with phosphatidylserine.”Clin.TrialsJ.24: 115-124.
Villardita C, et al, 1987. “Multicentre clinical trial of brain phosphatidylserine in elderly; subjects with mental deterioration.” Clin. Trials J. 24: 84-93.
Zannoti A, et al, 1987. “Pharmacological properties of phosphatidylserine: effects on memory function.” In, Nutrients and Brain Function, ed. Essman WB, pp. 95-102. New York: Karger.
Omega-3 fatty acids administered in phosphatidylserine improved certain aspects of high chronic stress in men.
Nutr Res. 2012 Apr;32(4):241-50.
Hellhammer J, Hero T, Franz N, Contreras C, Schubert M.
Nutrients such as omega-3 oils and phosphatidylserine have been considered to exert stress-buffering effects. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we investigated effects of omega-3 phosphatidylserine (PS) on perceived chronic stress, assessed by the Trier Inventory for Chronic Stress (Schulz P, Schlotz W, Becker P. TICS: Trierer Inventar zum chronischen Stress. Göttingen, Germany: Hogrefe, 2004.), and on psychobiological stress responses to an acute laboratory stress protocol, the Trier Social Stress Test (Neuropsychobiology.1993;28:76-81), at baseline and after the treatment period. We hypothesized that omega-3 PS supplementation lowers chronic and acute stress. Sixty healthy nonsmoking men aged 30 to 60 years either received omega-3 PS or a matching placebo for 12 weeks. Results revealed no significant main effect of omega-3 PS supplementation on stress measures. However, by accounting for chronic stress level of study participants, stress-reducing effects of omega-3 PS were found exclusively for high chronically stressed subjects. As expected, these individuals also showed a blunted cortisol response to the Trier Social Stress Test. Treatment with omega-3 PS seemed to restore the cortisol response in this particular subgroup of low responders. These results are in line with previous findings. We conclude that subgroups characterized by high chronic stress and/or a dysfunctional response of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis may profit from omega-3 PS supplementation.
The effect of phosphatidylserine containing Omega3 fatty-acids on attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms in children: a double-blind placebo-controlled trial, followed by an open-label extension.
Eur Psychiatry. 2012 Jul;27(5):335-42.
Manor I, Magen A, Keidar D, Rosen S, Tasker H, Cohen T, Richter Y, Zaaroor-Regev D, Manor Y, Weizman A.
OBJECTIVE: To study the efficacy and safety of phosphatidylserine (PS) containing Omega3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids attached to its backbone (PS-Omega3) in reducing attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in children.
METHOD: A 15-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase followed by an open-label extension of additional 15 weeks. Two hundred ADHD children were randomized to receive either PS-Omega3 or placebo, out of them, 150 children continued into the extension. Efficacy was assessed using Conners’ parent and teacher rating scales (CRS-P,T), Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), and Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ). Safety evaluation included adverse events monitoring.
RESULTS: The key finding of the double-blind phase was the significant reduction in the Global:Restless/impulsive subscale of CRS-P and the significant improvement in Parent impact-emotional (PE) subscale of the CHQ, both in the PS-Omega3 group. Exploratory subgroup analysis of children with a more pronounced hyperactive/impulsive behavior, as well as mood and behavior-dysregulation, revealed a significant reduction in the ADHD-Index and hyperactive components. Data from the open-label extension indicated sustained efficacy for children who continued to receive PS-Omega3. Children that switched to PS-Omega3 treatment from placebo showed a significant reduction in subscales scores of both CRS-P and the CRS-T, as compare to baseline scores. The treatment was well tolerated.
CONCLUSIONS: The results of this 30-week study suggest that PS-Omega3 may reduce ADHD symptoms in children. Preliminary analysis suggests that this treatment may be especially effective in a subgroup of hyperactive-impulsive, emotionally and behaviorally-dysregulated ADHD children.
Soybean-derived phosphatidylserine improves memory function of the elderly Japanese subjects with memory complaints.
J Clin Biochem Nutr. 2010 Nov;47(3):246-55.
Kato-Kataoka A, Sakai M, Ebina R, Nonaka C, Asano T, Miyamori T.
Soybean-derived phosphatidylserine (Soy-PS) is a phosphatidylserine made from soybean lecithin by enzymatic reaction with L-serine. A double-blind, randomized controlled study was conducted to investigate the effects of Soy-PS on the cognitive functions of the elderly Japanese subjects with memory complaints. Seventy-eight elderly people with mild cognitive impairment (50-69 years old) were randomly allocated to take Soy-PS (100 mg, 300 mg/day) or placebo for 6 months. As a result, there was no difference in blood markers and vital signs during Soy-PS treatment and any side effect caused by Soy-PS treatment was not observed. Neuropsychological test scores were similarly increased in all groups including placebo group. However, in the subjects with relatively low score at baseline, the memory scores in PS treated groups were significantly increased against the baseline, while those of placebo group remained unchanged. And the memory improvements in Soy-PS-treated groups were mostly attributed to the increase in delayed verbal recall, a memory ability attenuated in the earliest stage of dementia. In conclusion, Soy-PS used in this study is considered as safety food ingredient and 6 months of Soy-PS supplementation could improve the memory functions of the elderly with memory complaints.
The effect of phosphatidylserine-containing omega-3 fatty acids on memory abilities in subjects with subjective memory complaints: a pilot study.
Clin Interv Aging. 2010 Nov 2;5:313-6.
Richter Y, Herzog Y, Cohen T, Steinhart Y.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate for the first time the efficacy of safe-sourced phosphatidylserine-containing omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (PS-omega-3) in improving memory abilities.
METHODS: PS-omega-3 was administered daily for 6 weeks to eight elderly volunteers with subjective memory complaints. The Cognitive Drug Research test battery was used to assess the effect on their cognitive abilities.
RESULTS: PS-omega-3 supplementation resulted in 42% increase in the ability to recall words in the delayed condition.
CONCLUSION: PS-omega-3 may have a favorable effect on memory in subjects with subjective memory complaints. PS-omega-3 may serve as a safe alternative to phosphatidylserine extracted from bovine cortex.
Phosphatidylserine containing omega-3 fatty acids may improve memory abilities in non-demented elderly with memory complaints: a double-blind placebo-controlled trial.
Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord. 2010;29(5):467-74.
Vakhapova V, Cohen T, Richter Y, Herzog Y, Korczyn AD.
BACKGROUND: Phosphatidylserine (PS) may have beneficial effects on cognitive functions. We evaluated the efficacy of a novel preparation of PS containing omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids attached to its backbone (PS-DHA) in non-demented elderly with memory complaints.
METHODS: 157 participants were randomized to receive either PS-DHA or placebo for 15 weeks. Efficacy measures, assessed at baseline and endpoint, included the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, Rey Complex Figure Test, and a computerized cognitive battery. Clinicians’ Global Impression of Change was assessed following 7 and 15 weeks of treatment.
RESULTS: 131 participants completed the study although 9 were excluded from the efficacy analysis due to protocol violation. At endpoint, verbal immediate recall was significantly improved in the PS-DHA group compared to the placebo group. Post-hoc analysis revealed that a subset of participants with relatively good cognitive performance at baseline had significant treatment-associated improvements in immediate and delayed verbal recall, learning abilities, and time to copy complex figure. These favorable results were further supported by responder analysis.
CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that PS-DHA may improve cognitive performance in non-demented elderly with memory complaints. Post-hoc analysis of subgroups suggests that participants with higher baseline cognitive status were most likely to respond to PS-DHA. The results of this exploratory study should be followed up by additional studies aimed at confirming the present tentative conclusions.
Influence of phosphatidylserine on cognitive performance and cortical activity after induced stress.
Nutr Neurosci. 2008 Jun;11(3):103-10.
Baumeister J, Barthel T, Geiss KR, Weiss M.
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of phosphatidylserine (PS) on cognition and cortical activity after mental stress. After familiarization, 16 healthy subjects completed cognitive tasks after induced stress in a test-re-test design (T1 and T2). Directly after T1, subjects were assigned double-blind to either PS or placebo groups followed by T2 after 42 days. At T1 and T2, cortical activity was measured at baseline and immediately after stress with cognitive tasks using electro-encephalography (EEG). EEG was recorded at 17 electrode positions and fast Fourier transforms (FFT) determined power at Theta, Alpha-1, Alpha-2, Beta-1 and Beta-2. Statistics were calculated using ANOVA (group x trial x time). The main finding of the study was that chronic supplementation of phosphatidylserine significantly decreases Beta-1 power in right hemispheric frontal brain regions (F8; P < 0.05) before and after induced stress. The results for Beta-1 power in the PS group were connected to a more relaxed state compared to the controls.
Acute cognitive effects of standardised Ginkgo biloba extract complexed with phosphatidylserine.
Hum Psychopharmacol. 2007 Jun;22(4):199-210.
Kennedy DO, Haskell CF, Mauri PL, Scholey AB.
Recent data suggest that the complexation of standardised Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) with soy-derived phospholipids enhances the bioavailability of GBE’s active components. The current study therefore aimed to assess the comparative cognitive and mood effects of a low dose of GBE and products complexing the same extract with either phosphatidylserine or phosphatidylcholine. The study utilised a placebo-controlled, multi-dose, double-blind, balanced-crossover design. Twenty-eight healthy young participants received 120 mg GBE, 120 mg GBE complexed with phosphatidylserine (Virtiva), 120 mg GBE complexed with phosphatidylcholine and a matching placebo, on separate days 7 days apart. Cognitive performance was assessed using the Cognitive Drug Research (CDR) computerised test battery and Serial Subtraction tasks immediately prior to dosing and at 1, 2.5, 4 and 6 h thereafter. The primary outcome measures were the four aspects of cognitive performance, which have previously been derived by factor analysis of CDR subtests. Levels of terpenoids (bilobalide, ginkgolide A and ginkgolide B) were concomitantly assessed in plasma samples taken pre-dose and at 3 and 6.5 h post-dose.In keeping with previous research utilising the same methodology, 120 mg of GBE was not associated with markedly improved performance on the primary outcomes. However, administration of GBE complexed with phosphatidylserine resulted both in improved secondary memory performance and significantly increased speed of memory task performance across all of the post-dose testing sessions. Enhancement following GBE complexed with phosphatidylcholine was restricted to a modest improvement in secondary memory performance which was restricted to one post-dose time point. All three treatments were associated with improved calmness. There were no significant differences in post-dose levels of terpenoids between the Ginkgo containing treatments, although this latter finding may be attributable to methodological factors. Complexation with phosphatidylserine appears to potentiate the cognitive effects associated with a low dose of GBE. Further research is required to identify whether this effect is due to the complexation of the extracts, their mere combination, or the separate psychopharmacological actions of the two extracts.
Effects of phosphatidylserine on exercise capacity during cycling in active males.
Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2006 Jan;38(1):64-71.
Kingsley MI, Miller M, Kilduff LP, McEneny J, Benton D.
PURPOSE:The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of 750 mg of soybean-derived phosphatidylserine, administered daily for 10 d, on exercise capacity, oxygen uptake kinetic response, neuroendocrine function, and feeling states during exhaustive intermittent exercise.
METHODS:Following preliminary testing, fourteen active males completed a staged intermittent exercise protocol on two further occasions (T1 and T2) separated by 16 /- 1 d. The protocol consisted of three 10-min stages of cycling at 45, 55, and 65% VO2max, followed by a final bout at 85% VO2max that was continued until exhaustion. Approximately 5 d after T1 the subjects were assigned, in a double-blind manner, to either phosphatidylserine (PS) or placebo (P). Breath-by-breath respiratory data and heart rate were continually recorded throughout the exercise protocol, and blood samples were obtained at rest, during the rest periods within the protocol (Post-55, Post-65), at the end of exercise (Post-85), 20 min after the completion of exercise (postexercise), and the day following exercise (Post-24 h).
RESULTS:The main finding of this study was that supplementation had a significant effect on exercise time to exhaustion at 85% VO2max (P = 0.005). The exercise time to exhaustion in PS increased following supplementation (7:51 /- 1:36 to 9:51 /- 1:42 min:s, P = 0.001), whereas P remained unchanged (8:09 /- 0:54 to 8:02 /- 0:54 min:s, P = 0.670). Supplementation did not significantly affect oxygen kinetic mean response times (MRT(on) and MRT(off)), serum cortisol concentrations, substrate oxidation, and feeling states during the trial.
CONCLUSION:This is the first study to report improved exercise capacity following phosphatidylserine supplementation. These findings suggest that phosphatidylserine might possess potential ergogenic properties.
The influence of phosphatidylserine supplementation on mood and heart rate when faced with an acute stressor.
Nutr Neurosci. 2001;4(3):169-78.
Benton D, Donohoe RT, Sillance B, Nabb S.
There have been previous reports that supplements of phosphatidylserine (PS) blunted the release of cortisol in response to exercise stress and that it improved mood. The present study extended these observations by considering whether PS supplementation influenced subjective feelings of stress and the change in heart rate when a stressful mental arithmetic task was performed. In young adults, with neuroticism scores above rather than below the median, the taking of 300mg PS each day for a month was associated with feeling less stressed and having a better mood. The study for the first time reports an improvement in mood following PS supplementation in a sub-group of young healthy adults.