Discussion: NOx BOOSTTM contains antioxidants for the maintenance of good health.
|NPN (what's this?)||Product Code||Size||Per Capsule||Vegetarian|
|80021096||AOR14011||60 Lozenges||50 mg||Vegetarian|
|Serving Size: 1 Lonzenge|
|Vitamin C||50 mg|
|Non-medicinal ingredients: Fruit and vegetable juice powders (red beetroot, red raspberry, blueberry, bilberry), potassium nitrate (providing 25 mg nitrate), mannose, xanthan gum, sodium carboxymethylcellulose, maltodextrin, thaumatin, sodium stearyl fumarate.|
AOR Guarantees: that no ingredients not listed on the label have been added to the product. Contains no wheat, gluten, nuts, peanuts, sesame seeds, sulphites, mustard, dairy, soy, eggs, fish, shellfish or any animal by products.
Adult Dosage: Dissolve 2 lozenges in the mouth daily, or as directed by a qualified health care practitioner.
Cautions: Do not use with erectile dysfunction-type products.
Pregnancy/Nursing: Do not take
Natural fruit and vegetable flavours Pharmaceutical synthesis
The information and product descriptions appearing on this website are for information purposes only, and are not intended to provide or replace medical advice to individuals from a qualified health care professional. Consult with your physician if you have any health concerns, and before initiating any new diet, exercise, supplement, or other lifestyle changes.
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Nitric Oxide: A Supercharging Powerhouse
A Nobel Prize Winning Molecule
Nitric Oxide is a simple, yet powerful molecule responsible for an array of health promoting benefits, such as increased oxygenation and vasodilation (opening of the bloods vessels) and reducing inflammation. It also supports immunity, gastrointestinal health, skin health and more. As a result, it is a highly researched molecule which led to it winning Molecule of The Year in 1992 and The Nobel Prize for Medicine or Physiology in 1998.
Nitrate Rich Foods Are Phenomenal!
Nitrates that are naturally occurring in plant foods such as beets, celery and spinach are responsible for increased health benefits because they are converted to Nitric Oxide within the body. Nitric Oxide synthesis is also based on the successful conversion of inorganic nitrates in the form of sodium and potassium nitrate. In fact, breast milk is also rich in nitrate. Plant based nitrates are naturally and intelligently accompanied by powerful antioxidants such as vitamin C. This is why AOR’s Nitric Oxide boosting NOx products are so beneficial, seeing they are inspired by beets and other nitrate rich plant foods! Our process utilizes the direct conversion pathway of inorganic nitrates into Nitric Oxide within the body which is complemented by our proprietary blend of antioxidants to ensure healthful benefit.
The Ultimate Supercharger
Once Nitric Oxide is utilized correctly, safely and efficiently, its possibilities are endless to say the least. Seeing it is such a diverse molecule, with a multitude of actions, it is also a powerful “supercharger” because it is able to enhance the action of a substance with which it shares similar effects and improve its bioavailability. This is why we developed the NOx combined products, which are highly effective at a smaller dose.
Debunking the Bad Rap
Unfortunately, nitrates have suffered a bad reputation and are a hot bed of controversy. Nitrates have been linked to the health problems associated with cured meats, increased risk of cancer, blue baby syndrome, and environmental problems and water contamination associated with fertilizers.
Fortunately, the evidence tells us that dietary nitrates are safe and necessary for health and vitality. AOR is the first nutraceutical company to carefully examine all available research, to challenge the myths about the danger of nitrates, and to bring to light the truth about their importance for good health.
Preserved Meats: One of the main issues surrounding nitrates is the potential formation of N-Nitrosamines, which are associated with the consumption of “cured” meats, i.e. preserved with nitrites, not nitrates. N-Nitrosamines have indeed been linked to health risks, but very specific conditions need to be present in order for them to form and become dangerous. Nitrite, not nitrate, must be present along with short-chain saturated fats combined with secondary amines found in animal proteins, high cooking temperatures of 130⁰C or more, and the burning and charring methods used in smoking or curing meats. All of these factors must be present in order to form N-Nitrosamines, and it is this lethal combination that creates the true link to cancer.
Blue Baby Syndrome: Blue baby syndrome was thought to be caused by high nitrate in the water supply. However, the actual cause of the problem was later found to be the presence of bacteria in the water, not the nitrate.
Fertilizers: Too much of a good thing is often not good. It is true that excessive amounts of nitrate in water run-off from fertilizers can cause environmental disturbances. Excessive amounts of anything naturally present will alter the ecosystem and cause problems, but this must not cause us to think that dietary nitrates naturally found in foods are dangerous!
Now you have a clearer picture of the true benefits of nitrates and the unfounded fears created by their unsubstantiated claims. Take control of your health and reap the benefits of this previously controversial nutrient. Try one of our NOx based products today, and be amazed with the results!
Designed with the athlete in mind, NOx Boost is just that, a boost in all the right places, enhancing performance, endurance and oxygenation. NOx Boost is a natural beet and berry flavoured lozenge containing vitamin C, and a natural source of nitrate. It is also naturally sweetened with a fruit-derived protein called “katemfe”, which is a lower glycemic sweetener.
Not only does NOx Boost increase oxygen levels, it assists the body in using it more effectively. This is in part due to Nitric Oxide’s ability to reduce blood pressure and improve blood flow, which improves the delivery of oxygen and nutrients to the tissues, meaning less sore muscles and faster recovery times. It has also been clinically demonstrated to reduce time to fatigue, and many athletes report a decrease in their completion times. The lozenge delivery system facilitates a quicker conversion of nitrates to Nitric Oxide.
Nitrates produce Nitric Oxide in the body which acts as an antimicrobial, promotes skin health, modulates the inflammatory response, and promotes wound healing, among other benefits.
NOx Boost is an excellent choice for athletes, gym-goers and sports enthusiasts due to its faster conversion rate of nitrate to Nitric Oxide, as well as those needing a boost during their busy, high-stress day. Since the body’s Nitric Oxide production decreases with age, NOx Boost is a great candidate for anyone looking to restore the youthful effects of Nitric Oxide in the body. Nitric Oxide-enhancing supplements are essential for cardiovascular support and are a great addition to any supplement regimen to maximize the delivery of nutrients to the tissues.
To learn more about common myths and the safety of nitrates and nitrites, click here to go to the FAQ tab .
The Mediterranean diet is considered one of the healthiest diets in the world, however many people have difficulty consuming enough of the right types of food that promote its well-known health benefits. This is what makes vitamins and supplements so popular.
NOx Boost lozenges from AOR give you a fast acting health boost, providing vital nutrients found in a healthy Mediterranean diet. AOR is proudly Canadian.
Bian K, Doursout MF, Murad F. Vascular system: role of nitric oxide in cardiovascular diseases. J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich). 2008 Apr;10(4):304-10.
Bondonno CP, Croft KD, Puddey IB, Considine MJ, Yang X, Ward NC, Hodgson JM. Nitrate causes a dose-dependent augmentation of nitric oxide status in healthy women. Food Funct. 2012 May;3(5):522-7.
Gilchrist M, Winyard PG, Benjamin N. Dietary nitrate–good or bad? Nitric Oxide. 2010 Feb 15;22(2):104-9.
Holmannová D, Koláčková M, Krejsek J. Vnitr Lek. 2012 Oct;58(10):743-9. [Vitamin C and its physiological role with respect to the components of the immune system].
Hord NG, Tang Y, Bryan NS. Food sources of nitrates and nitrites: the physiologic context for potential health benefits. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009 Jul;90(1):1-10.
Lundberg JO, Weitzberg E, Gladwin MT.The nitrate-nitrite-nitric oxide pathway in physiology and therapeutics. Nitric Oxide. 2010 Feb 15;22(2):104-9.
Mackerness CW, Leach SA, Thompson MH, Hill MJ. The inhibition of bacterially mediated N-nitrosation by vitamin C: relevance to the inhibition of endogenous N-nitrosation in the achlorhydric stomach. Carcinogenesis. 1989 Feb;10(2):397-9.
Miller GD, Marsh AP, Dove RW, Beavers D, Presley T, Helms C, Bechtold E, King SB, Kim-Shapiro D. Plasma nitrate and nitrite are increased by a high-nitrate supplement but not by high-nitrate foods in older adults. Nutr Res. 2012 Mar;32(3):160-8.
Mukhtar H, Ahmad N. Tea polyphenols: prevention of cancer and optimizing health. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000 Jun; 71(6 Suppl): 1698S-702S; discussion 1703S-4S.
Peri L, Pietraforte D, Scorza G, Napolitano A, Fogliano V, Minetti M. Apples increase nitric oxide production by human saliva at the acidic pH of the stomach: a new biological function for polyphenols with a catechol group? Free Radic Biol Med. 2005 Sep 1;39(5):668-81.
Rocha BS, Gago B, Barbosa RM, Laranjinha J. Dietary polyphenols generate nitric oxide from nitrite in the stomach and induce smooth muscle relaxation. Toxicology. 2009 Nov 9;265(1-2):41-8.
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The nitrate-nitrite-nitric oxide pathway in physiology and therapeutics.
Nitric Oxide. 2010 Feb 15;22(2):104-9.
Lundberg JO, Weitzberg E, Gladwin MT.
The inorganic anions nitrate (NO3-) and nitrite (NO2-) were previously thought to be inert end products of endogenous nitric oxide (NO) metabolism. However, recent studies show that these supposedly inert anions can be recycled in vivo to form NO, representing an important alternative source of NO to the classical L-arginine-NO-synthase pathway, in particular in hypoxic states. This Review discusses the emerging important biological functions of the nitrate-nitrite-NO pathway, and highlights studies that implicate the therapeutic potential of nitrate and nitrite in conditions such as myocardial infarction, stroke, systemic and pulmonary hypertension, and gastric ulceration.
Dietary nitrate–good or bad?
Nitric Oxide. 2010 Feb 15;22(2):104-9.
Gilchrist M, Winyard PG, Benjamin N.
There has now been a great deal written about inorganic nitrate in both the popular press and in scientific journals. Papers in the 1970s warned us that inorganic nitrate could theoretically be metabolised in the human body to N-nitroso compounds, many of which are undoubtedly carcinogenic. More recently there is evidence that nitrate can undergo metabolic conversion to nitrite and nitric oxide and perform a useful protective function to prevent infection, protect our stomach, improve exercise performance and prevent vascular disease.
Food sources of nitrates and nitrites: the physiologic context for potential health benefits.
Am J Clin Nutr. 2009 Jul;90(1):1-10.
Hord NG, Tang Y, Bryan NS.
The presence of nitrates and nitrites in food is associated with an increased risk of gastrointestinal cancer and, in infants, methemoglobinemia. Despite the physiologic roles for nitrate and nitrite in vascular and immune function, consideration of food sources of nitrates and nitrites as healthful dietary components has received little attention. Approximately 80% of dietary nitrates are derived from vegetable consumption; sources of nitrites include vegetables, fruit, and processed meats. Nitrites are produced endogenously through the oxidation of nitric oxide and through a reduction of nitrate by commensal bacteria in the mouth and gastrointestinal tract. As such, the dietary provision of nitrates and nitrites from vegetables and fruit may contribute to the blood pressure-lowering effects of the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet. We quantified nitrate and nitrite concentrations by HPLC in a convenience sample of foods. Incorporating these values into 2 hypothetical dietary patterns that emphasize high-nitrate or low-nitrate vegetable and fruit choices based on the DASH diet, we found that nitrate concentrations in these 2 patterns vary from 174 to 1222 mg. The hypothetical high-nitrate DASH diet pattern exceeds the World Health Organization’s Acceptable Daily Intake for nitrate by 550% for a 60-kg adult. These data call into question the rationale for recommendations to limit nitrate and nitrite consumption from plant foods; a comprehensive reevaluation of the health effects of food sources of nitrates and nitrites is appropriate. The strength of the evidence linking the consumption of nitrate- and nitrite-containing plant foods to beneficial health effects supports the consideration of these compounds as nutrients.
Vascular system: role of nitric oxide in cardiovascular diseases.
J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich). 2008 Apr;10(4):304-10.
Bian K, Doursout MF, Murad F.
In contrast with the short research history of the enzymatic synthesis of nitric oxide (NO), the introduction of nitrate-containing compounds for medicinal purposes marked its 150th anniversary in 1997. Glyceryl trinitrate (nitroglycerin) is the first compound of this category. On October 12, 1998, the Nobel Assembly awarded the Nobel Prize in Medicine or Physiology to scientists Robert Furchgott, Louis Ignarro, and Ferid Murad for their discoveries concerning NO as a signaling molecule in the cardiovascular system. NO-mediated signaling is a recognized component in various physiologic processes (eg, smooth muscle relaxation, inhibition of platelet and leukocyte aggregation, attenuation of vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation, neurotransmission, and immune defense), to name only a few. NO has also been implicated in the pathology of many inflammatory diseases, including arthritis, myocarditis, colitis, and nephritis and a large number of pathologic conditions such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, cancer, diabetes, and neurodegenerative diseases. Some of these processes (eg, smooth muscle relaxation, platelet aggregation, and neurotransmission) require only a brief production of NO at low nanomolar concentrations and are dependent on the recruitment of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)-dependent signaling. Other processes are associated with direct interaction of NO or reactive nitrogen species derived from it with target proteins and requires a more sustained production of NO at higher concentrations but do not involve the cGMP pathway.
Dietary polyphenols generate nitric oxide from nitrite in the stomach and induce smooth muscle relaxation.
Toxicology. 2009 Nov 9;265(1-2):41-8.
Rocha BS, Gago B, Barbosa RM, Laranjinha J.
Nitrite, considered a biological waste and toxic product, is being regarded as an important physiological molecule in nitric oxide (NO) biochemistry. Because the interaction of dietary phenolic compounds and nitrite would be kinetically (due to the high concentrations achieved) and thermodynamically (on basis of the redox potentials) feasible in the stomach, we have studied the potential reduction of nitrite by polyphenols present in several dietary sources. By measuring the time courses of *NO production in simulated gastric juice (pH 2), the efficiency of the compounds studied is as follows: Epicatechin-3-O-gallate>quercetin>procyanidin B8 dimer>oleuropein>procyanidin B2 dimer>chlorogenic acid>epicatechin>catechin>procyanidin B5 dimer. The initial rates of *NO production fall in a narrow range (ca. 1-5 microMs(-1)) but the distinct kinetics of the decay of *NO signals suggest that competition reactions for *NO are operative. The proof of concept that, in the presence of nitrite, phenol-containing dietary products induce a strong increase of *NO in the stomach was established in an in vivo experiment with healthy volunteers consuming lettuce, onions, apples, wine, tea, berries and cherries. Moreover, selected mixtures of oleuropein and catechin with low nitrite (1 microM) were shown to induce muscle relaxation of stomach strips in a structure-dependent way. Data presented here brings strong support to the concept that polyphenols consumed in a variety of dietary products, under gastric conditions, reduce nitrite to *NO that, in turn, may exert a biological impact as a local relaxant.
Apples increase nitric oxide production by human saliva at the acidic pH of the stomach: a new biological function for polyphenols with a catechol group?
Free Radic Biol Med. 2005 Sep 1;39(5):668-81.
Peri L, Pietraforte D, Scorza G, Napolitano A, Fogliano V, Minetti M.
Dietary inorganic nitrate is secreted in saliva and reduced to nitrite by bacterial flora. At the acidic pH of the stomach nitrite is present as nitrous acid in equilibrium with nitric oxide (*NO), and other nitrogen oxides with nitrating and nitrosating activity. *NO in the stomach exerts several beneficial effects, but nitrosating/nitrating species have been implicated as a possible cause of epithelial neoplasia at the gastroesophageal junction. We investigated the effects of apple extracts on *NO release by human saliva at pH 2. A water extract obtained from apple homogenate increased *NO release caused by acidification of saliva. Data show that polyphenols were responsible for this activity, with chlorogenic acid and (+)-catechin the most active and concentrated species. However, ferulic acid, a hydroxycinnamic acid with only one aromatic hydroxyl group, did not increase *NO release. Fructose, the most representative sugar in apples, was also inactive. Interestingly, ascorbic acid in saliva induced a SCN(-)-enhanced burst of *NO but, unlike apple, the release was transient. The simultaneous addition of ascorbic acid and apple extract caused a burst of *NO followed by the increased steady-state level characteristic of saliva containing apple extract. Chlorogenic acid and (+)-catechin, but not ferulic acid, formed o-semiquinone radicals and nitrated polyphenols, suggesting the scavenging of *NO(2) by o-semiquinones. Our results propose that some apple polyphenols not only inhibit nitrosation/nitration but also promote *NO bio-availabilty at the gastric level, a previously unappreciated function.
The inhibition of bacterially mediated N-nitrosation by vitamin C: relevance to the inhibition of endogenous N-nitrosation in the achlorhydric stomach.
Carcinogenesis. 1989 Feb;10(2):397-9.
Mackerness CW, Leach SA, Thompson MH, Hill MJ.
It has been suggested that endogenously formed N-nitroso compounds are involved in the aetiology of gastric cancer. In the model of gastric carcinogenesis postulated by Correa, gastric atrophy is an important early stage in the progression to carcinoma which results in the loss of stomach acidity, and colonization of the stomach by bacteria. As a consequence of the metabolic activity of these bacteria intragastric nitrite (a precursor to N-nitroso compounds) and possibly carcinogenic N-nitroso compounds become elevated, which may hasten the progression to carcinoma. Vitamin C has been shown to be an effective inhibitor of acid-catalysed N-nitroso compound formation, in vivo and in vitro, and this has been attributed to its relatively rapid reaction with nitrite in contrast to the slower rates of reaction of nitrite with secondary amines. However, N-nitroso compound formation in the achlorhydric stomach must proceed by mechanisms which operate at neutral pH values. One potential mechanism involves the enzymatic catalysis of N-nitrosation by a subpopulation of the bacteria colonizing the achlorhydric stomach which catalyse these reactions and in particular denitrifying organisms. In this study, we examined the effect of vitamin C on the formation of N-nitrosomorpholine from morpholine and nitrite when mediated by cells of an actively N-nitrosating denitrifying bacterium (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, BM1030) at neutral pH. Despite the fact that vitamin C ordinarily shows little reactivity towards nitrite at neutral pH it did prove to be a potent inhibitor of bacterial N-nitrosamine formation. This study provides some justification for the use of vitamin C as an inhibitor of endogenous N-nitrosation regardless of gastric pH.
Tea polyphenols: prevention of cancer and optimizing health.
Am J Clin Nutr. 2000 Jun; 71(6 Suppl): 1698S-702S; discussion 1703S-4S.
Mukhtar H, Ahmad N.
The tea plant Camellia sinesis is cultivated in >30 countries. Epidemiologic observations and laboratory studies have indicated that polyphenolic compounds present in tea may reduce the risk of a variety of illnesses, including cancer and coronary heart disease. Most studies involved green tea, however; only a few evaluated black tea. Results from studies in rats, mice, and hamsters showed that tea consumption protects against lung, forestomach, esophagus, duodenum, pancreas, liver, breast, colon, and skin cancers induced by chemical carcinogens. Other studies showed the preventive effect of green tea consumption against atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease, high blood cholesterol concentrations, and high blood pressure. Because the epidemiologic studies and research findings in laboratory animals have shown the chemopreventive potential of tea polyphenols in cancer, the usefulness of tea polyphenols for humans should be evaluated in clinical trials. One such phase 1 clinical trial is currently under way at the MD Anderson Cancer Center in collaboration with Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center. This study will examine the safety and possible efficacy of consuming the equivalent of > or =10 cups (> or =2.4 L) of green tea per day. The usefulness of tea polyphenols may be extended by combining them with other consumer products such as food items and vitamin supplements. This “designer-item” approach may be useful for human populations, but it requires further study.
Q: Aren’t nitrates and nitrites chemicals?
A: Any substance can be called a chemical because chemistry involves adding various substances (chemicals) together under certain conditions to produce others. Nitrates (NO3) are natural compounds abundantly present in nature. In fact the body makes nitrates continuously!
Q: Where does the body obtain nitrates from?
A: From various fruits and vegetables as well as soil and water. The nitrate and nitrite contents of various common vegetables are shown in the table below.
Q: What diets are rich in nitrates?
A: Specific health promoting diets like the Japanese diet, the Mediterranean diet or the DASH (dietary approaches to stop hypertension) are all high in nitrates. Physicians often recommend these diets (especially DASH) as a first line treatment for preventing and/or reducing moderately high blood pressure. Most of these diets have around 10-20 fold higher nitrate content than a typical North American diet.
Q: Are there any limitations imposed by various government regulatory bodies for nitrate and nitrite consumption in humans?
A: The US EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) and WHO (World Health Organization) have set limits for human exposure to be 3.7 mg/kg for nitrate and 0.06 mg/kg for nitrite. This translates to 259 mg of elemental nitrate ion for a 60 kg adult. This 259 mg is the maximum daily amount present in the various AOR/NOx formulas.
Q: I thought that nitrates were dangerous?
A: No, there are no studies showing nitrates to be dangerous. In fact nitrates have been used for over a thousand years, especially by Chinese physicians.
Q: What about nitrites? Aren’t they dangerous?
A: In the early 1950’s there was some alarm that well water in rural areas with high nitrate and/or nitrite concentrations caused methemoglobinemia or the “blue baby syndrome” in an isolated case. It was thought that nitrite would bind to the hemoglobin in the red blood cells thereby preventing binding of oxygen and thus causing cyanosis (or lack of oxygen to the tissues, causing bluing of the tissues). However, no other cases were reported. Re-examination of the incident reveals that the methemoglobinemia may have been due to the well water being contaminated with bacteria. Recent studies have shown that even very high doses of nitrite causes binding of up to only 10% of hemoglobin with no signs of cyanosis. It seems that this is a non-issue, but as a precaution one should still be cautious against the use of nitrates in children.
The second toxicity issue is the formation of nitrosamines which are thought to be potentially carcinogenic. Nitrosamines are formed when certain foods rich in amines react with nitrites under ideal conditions. However, no epidemiological or population studies nor long term animal toxicity studies have shown a significant increase in the formation of cancers compared to placebos.
Q: Does AOR take any measures to reduce any potential formation of nitrosamines?
A: Yes, AOR’s unique formula combines specific ingredients that eliminate the potential formation of any nitrosamines. These ingredients accomplish this via pH adjustment, changing the availability of protons and by the presence of polyphenols.
Q: But aren’t nitrates used to preserve meats like bacon and so called “cured”-meats?
A: No, it is nitrites that have been used for centuries to preserve meats. Nitrites are an excellent preservative agent, but also highly effective for preventing the development of bacteria like Clostridium difficile, which causes nasty infections like Traveler’s Diarrhea, which can be very difficult to prevent and eradicate otherwise.
Q: What is the link between preserved meats and cancer?
A: Epidemiologic and clinical studies have associated preserved meat consumption with increased risk of cancer, however, recent meta-analysis (examination of relevant studies) has challenged this conclusion with the following statement: “these results conclude that available data is not sufficient to support a clear and unequivocal independent association between processed meat consumption and colorectal cancer risk”. It is interesting that many of the companies have switched from using sodium nitrite to celery or beet extract due to the high content of nitrite present!
Q: Are there other studies that support the safety of nitrates and nitrites?
A: Yes, two recent studies carried out by highly reputable groups (the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) and European Food Safety Authority (EFSA)) have independently concluded that, “Carcinogenicity from drinking water and food sources of nitrates and nitrites were not strongly supported by the epidemiologic evidence.”
Q: What about breast milk?
A: Breast milk is considered the perfect food, with essential nutrients for the health and development of babies. Breast milk is rich in both nitrite and nitrate, with levels that exceed the daily intake set by our regulatory authorities by over 20 times!
Q: I have heard that the mitochondria play an important role in various pathologies. What effect does NO have on mitochondria?
A: That is correct. Mitochondria are now implicated in a host of diseases and recent evidence suggests that mitochondrion is one of the major targets for nitrite and NO activity. The net result is that there is greater protection of the mitochondria and less damage to the tissues e.g. heart, brain, muscle, kidney etc. The charts below show the effects of nitrate supplementation in mitochondrial function.
Q: What effect do nitrate and nitrite have in exercise physiology?
A: Several studies have shown that nitrate and nitrite supplementation improve the efficiency of the mitochondria, resulting in a net increase in ATP production and reduced oxygen cost. For example when athletes were supplemented with nitrite they required less oxygen (20% less!) to complete a specific distance than athletes that were not supplemented. In addition, there was no increase of lactic acid, suggesting a dramatic improvement to the overall efficiency of the mitochondria. Using an analogy, this is like a car that can go much further with the same amount of fuel! This is excellent news for any athlete.
Q: Are there implications for Nitric Oxide for other disease conditions?
A: Yes, specifically they are beneficial for any condition where oxygen availability is limited. This includes asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, various heart diseases (e.g. angina, congestive heart failure), hypertension and more.
Q: So what is the final word on the use of nitrates as nutritional supplements?
A: Since the middle of the last century, nitrates have been much maligned, which has led to a knee-jerk reaction by various government authorities who have imposed strict limits on allowed levels of nitrates, especially in our drinking water. Enforcing these restrictions has resulted in the needless spending of hundreds of millions of dollars every year. Since the mid-1990’s new research from various groups in the UK, Sweden and the US have uncovered huge benefits of nitrates via the formation of NO, an important molecule that helps communication within cells. The benefits of nitrate consumption have been shown to include cardiovascular support, immune system enhancement, anti microbial actions, bone protection, anti cancer effects, nervous system support and many more. It seems that nitrate is an important nutrient that currently is being denied access as a natural health product and which can significantly improve the lives and health of millions of people.
Nitrate causes a dose-dependent augmentation of nitric oxide status in healthy women.
Food Funct. 2012 May;3(5):522-7.
Bondonno CP, Croft KD, Puddey IB, Considine MJ, Yang X, Ward NC, Hodgson JM.
Green leafy vegetables, high in dietary nitrate, may contribute to cardiovascular health by augmenting nitric oxide status. The exogenous enterosalivary pathway of nitrate reduction to nitrite appears to be a critical determinant of the effects of nitrate. Our primary objective was to investigate the dose-response of nitrate intake on nitric oxide status and nitrate reduction in the mouth. We also assessed whether antibacterial toothpaste can inhibit nitrate reduction and blunt subsequent increases in circulating nitric oxide. A randomised, controlled, crossover trial with healthy women (n = 16) was conducted. The acute effects of four doses of nitrate (0 mg, 100 mg, 200 mg, 400 mg, as well as 400 mg plus antibacterial toothpaste), administered in random order, were compared. Measurements included biomarkers of plasma nitric oxide status, assessed by measuring S-nitrosothiols + other nitroso species (RXNO) and nitrite, and a biomarker of nitrate reduction in the mouth, assessed by measuring salivary nitrite. Compared to 0 mg, all doses of nitrate resulted in higher plasma RXNO and nitrite, and salivary nitrite (P < 0.05). A linear dose-response to nitrate intake was observed with plasma RXNO and nitrite, and salivary nitrite (P < 0.001). Antibacterial toothpaste did not alter nitrate reduction in the mouth (P > 0.9) or blunt the increase in nitric oxide status (P > 0.9). Thus, our study has demonstrated that increasing nitrate intake results in a dose-related increase in nitrate reduction in the mouth and nitric oxide status, and that use of antibacterial toothpaste does not inhibit nitrate reduction or blunt increases in circulating nitric oxide.
Vnitr Lek. 2012 Oct;58(10):743-9.
[Vitamin C and its physiological role with respect to the components of the immune system].
Holmannová D, Koláčková M, Krejsek J.
Vitamin C is a water soluble micronutrient commonly found in our diet which orchestrates the function of both innate and adaptive immune system, influencing both cellular and humoral immune responses. Vitamin C inhibits excessive activation of the immune system to prevent tissue damage, but also supports antibacterial activity, stimulates NK cells and differentiation of Th0 subset into Th1 characterized by interferon γ production. In addition, vitamin C interferes with the synthesis of proinflammatory cytokines, or with the expression of adhesive molecules. Moreover, vitamin C as an antioxidat protects the immune cells against intracellular ROS (reactive oxygen species) formed in the inflammatory response. Vitamin C as an enzymatic cofactor is extremely important in maintaining tissue integrity, and plays a crucial role in formation of skin, epithelial and endothelial barriers.
Plasma nitrate and nitrite are increased by a high-nitrate supplement but not by high-nitrate foods in older adults.
Nutr Res. 2012 Mar;32(3):160-8.
Miller GD, Marsh AP, Dove RW, Beavers D, Presley T, Helms C, Bechtold E, King SB, Kim-Shapiro D.
Little is known about the effect of dietary nitrate on the nitrate/nitrite/nitric oxide cycle in older adults. We examined the effect of a 3-day control diet vs high-nitrate diet, with and without a high-nitrate supplement (beetroot juice), on plasma nitrate and nitrite kinetics and blood pressure using a randomized 4-period crossover controlled design. We hypothesized that the high-nitrate diet would show higher levels of plasma nitrate/nitrite and lower blood pressure compared with the control diet, which would be potentiated by the supplement. Participants were 8 normotensive older men and women (5 female, 3 male, 72.5 ± 4.7 years old) with no overt disease or medications that affect nitric oxide metabolism. Plasma nitrate and nitrite levels and blood pressure were measured before and hourly for 3 hours after each meal. The mean daily changes in plasma nitrate and nitrite were significantly different from baseline for both control diet + supplement (P < .001 and P = .017 for nitrate and nitrite, respectively) and high-nitrate diet + supplement (P = .001 and P = .002), but not for control diet (P = .713 and P = .741) or high-nitrate diet (P = .852 and P = .500). Blood pressure decreased from the morning baseline measure to the three 2-hour postmeal follow-up time points for all treatments, but there was no main effect for treatment. In healthy older adults, a high-nitrate supplement consumed at breakfast elevated plasma nitrate and nitrite levels throughout the day. This observation may have practical utility for the timing of intake of a nitrate supplement with physical activity for older adults with vascular dysfunction.