DISCUSSION: Ortho•Core is an advanced, balanced, and comprehensive multi-vitamin/mineral supplement. Ortho•Core contains a broad spectrum of vitamins, minerals, antioxidants and other factors for the maintenance of good health and to help the body metabolize carbohydrates, fats and proteins.
|NPN (what's this?)||Product Code||Size||Per Capsule||Vegetarian|
|80025762||AOR04021||180 Vegi-Caps||325 mg||N/A|
|Serving Size: 6 Capsules|
|Vitamin A Complex|
|Retinol (Palmitate)||110 mcg RAE||363 IU|
|Natural-Source Mixed Carotenoids:|
|- Beta-carotene||900 mcg RAE||1.8 mg|
|- Lutein esters||6.8 mg|
|- Astaxanthin||2 mg|
|- Lycopene||5 mg|
|Vitamin B Complex|
|B1 (Thiamine)||9 mg|
|B2 (Riboflavin-5-phosphate)||2.5 mg|
|B3 (Niacin - from 126 mg inositol hexanicotinate)||115 mg|
|B5 (d-Ca Pantothenate)||100 mg|
|B6 (Pyridoxal-5'-phosphate)||100 mg|
|B12 (Methylcobalamin)||647 mcg|
|Folic Acid (calcium L-5-MTHF)||800 mcg|
|Choline (bitartrate)||100 mg|
|Inositol (from inositol, inositol hexanicotinate†)||100 mg|
|Vitamin C Complex (magnesium ascorbate)||120 mg|
|Vitamin D3 (Cholecalciferol)||25 mcg||1000 IU|
|Vitamin E Complex|
|Mixed Tocopherols (soy, min. 65% gamma)||100 mg*|
|Vitamin E (from alpha-tocopherol)||7.1 mg ATE||10.6 IU|
|Mixed Tocotrienols (palm)||10 mg**|
|Vitamin K2 (MK-4, MK-7)||120 mcg|
|Boron (citrate)||700 mcg|
|Calcium (carbonate, citrate-malate)||300 mg|
|Chromium (picolinate)||100 mcg|
|Copper (citrate)||1.5 mg|
|Iodine (Potassium iodide)||150 mcg|
|Magnesium (aspartate, oxide, ascorbate)||210 mg|
|Potassium (chloride)||50 mg|
|Manganese (bisglycinate)||2.3 mg|
|Molybdenum (Na Molybdate)||45 mcg|
|Selenium (Selenomethionine)||55 mcg|
|Silicon (HPV chelate)||25 mg|
|Vanadium (citrate)||18 mcg|
|Zinc (citrate)||11 mg|
|Phytonutrients & Antioxidants|
|Grape Seed Extract (≥85% oligomeric proanthocyanidins)||100 mg|
|R(α) Lipoic Acid (sodium salt)‡||150 mg|
|Co-enzyme Q10 (ubiquinone-10)||30 mg|
|Green Tea Extract (≥45% EgCG, ≤1% caffeine)||140 mg|
|N-acetylcysteine (NAC)||200 mg|
|Mixed Citrus Bioflavonoids||25 mg|
|†Total quantity of inositol hexanicotinate: 126 mg. *Tocopherols: >7.1 mg alpha, >1.3 mg beta, >64.8 mg gamma, >13.9 mg delta. **Tocotrienols: >2.8 mg alpha, >0.4 mg beta, >5.1 mg gamma, >1.4 mg delta. ‡Contains 15 mg sodium per serving. Non-medicinal ingredients: zeaxanthin, chlorophyllin copper complex, broccoli extract, microcrystalline cellulose, tocopherols, sunflower & palm oils, medium chain triglycerides, polyglycerol esters of fatty acids, starch (pea, rice, corn, soy), cellulose gum, acacia gum, sodium alginate, ascorbyl palmitate, sucrose, silicon dioxide, dicalcium and tricalcium phosphate, dextrin, maltodextrin, sorbitan stearate, hydroxypropyl cellulose. Capsule: hypromellose.|
AOR Guarantees: that no ingredients not listed on the label have been added to the product. Contains no wheat, gluten, peanuts, sesame seeds, sulphites, mustard, dairy or eggs.
Adult Dosage: Take up to 6 capsules daily with meals, or as directed by a qualified health care practitioner. Take a few hours before or after taking other medications.
Cautions: Consult a health care practitioner prior to use if you are taking blood thinners, blood pressure medication, antibiotics, nitroglycerin, or if you have diabetes, cystinuria, an iron deficiency or a liver disorder. Consult a health care practitioner if you develop symptoms of liver trouble (such as abdominal pain, dark urine or jaundice) or for use beyond 12 weeks. This product contains soy. Do not take if you have a soy allergy.
Pregnancy/Nursing: Do not take
Pharmaceutical synthesis; Natural botanical extracts; Tocopherols - soy; Tocotrienols - palm;
The information and product descriptions appearing on this website are for information purposes only, and are not intended to provide or replace medical advice to individuals from a qualified health care professional. Consult with your physician if you have any health concerns, and before initiating any new diet, exercise, supplement, or other lifestyle changes.
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Superior Forms and Balanced Doses
AOR’s Ortho Core contains superior forms of nutrients with balanced dosages based on scientific studies, ensuring that the nutrients work synergistically toward optimal health. Ortho-Core™ sets itself apart from other multivitamins in two ways: the first is that it does not concern itself with mega-doses. Instead, it pays extraordinary attention to balancing ratios of essential nutrients to one another in order to achieve a synergistic result. Secondly, it pays meticulous attention to combining diversely superior sources of those essential nutrients and balancing their ratios for optimal synergy as well.
The Cutting Edge of Health
Ortho Core contains a broad spectrum of vitamins, minerals and phytonutrients. It includes vitamin A with optimal doses of various carotenoids. It contains B vitamins in their active forms, and vitamin C along with various bioflavonoids. It also contains natural forms and natural ratios of all 8 vitamin Es, all of which have important roles and balance each other. Minerals in Ortho Core include zinc and copper in a balanced ratio, and important trace minerals such as boron, silicon and vanadium. To give the formula an extra edge, Ortho Core contains a number of health-enhancing phytonutrients backed by science including grape seed extract, EGCG from green tea, lipoic acid and coenzyme Q10.
Vitamin A Complex: Ortho-Core™ contains a safe dosage of natural vitamin A combined with an innovative diversity of carotenoids.
Vitamin B Complex: The amount for each and every B vitamin is selected for the body’s most efficient utilization. Ortho-Core™ includes B-vitamins in their effective co-enzyme forms, including methylcobalamin (B-12), pyridoxal-5’-phosphate (B-6) and 5-MTHF (folate).
Vitamin E Complex: Vitamin E is a complex that consists of eight different molecules. Most supplements contain only one vitamin E molecule: synthetic alpha-tocopherol, which actually lowers the levels of the other E molecules. The most common E molecule in food (and in Ortho-Core™), is actually gamma-tocopherol. New evidence suggests that gamma-tocopherol, far more than alpha-tocopherol, could yield remarkable results against numerous health disorders. The ratios of the E molecules present in Ortho Core are the ratios found in nature since it is a natural extract with no synthetic vitamin E.
Vitamin C Complex: Ortho-Core’s vitamin C complex begins with a powerful dose of magnesium ascorbate, but it also contains a bioflavonoid mix that includes Quercetin, a ubiquitous micronutrient known for its heart benefits. Bioflavonoids enhance the activity of Vitamin C.
Zinc-Copper Balance: Ortho-Core™ includes a safe and balanced ratio of these two interdependent essential minerals.
Trace Minerals: The evidence is compelling that boron, silicon and vanadium are necessary to maintain good health, and Ortho-Core™ includes them all.
Phytonutrients and Antioxidants: There are the thousands of biologically active substances found in plants, and many of these “phytonutrients” have been shown to be protective, disease-preventing compounds. Ortho-Core™ contains phytonutrients that are strongly supported by studies on humans. These make up the icing on the cake of the best multi on the market.
Deficiencies vs. Imbalances
It has been well-established that the diet of mainstream society is rampantly deficient in essential nutrients. The need to redress these deficiencies has necessitated the existence of multivitamin formulations, and these formulations react to perceived deficiencies. If a study suggests we are not getting enough of a vitamin or mineral, supplement manufacturers will often add an arbitrarily large amount of the nutrient to their multivitamin formulations. While this might make some short-term sense, it does not take into account that all nutrients work together and in synergy. In addition, randomly mixing nutrients together in massive or unbalanced doses is not necessarily beneficial, and can even be wasteful or even toxic, especially if the nutrients are not from quality sources.
Ortho-CoreTM sets itself apart from other multivitamins in two ways: the first is that it does not concern itself with mega-doses. Instead, it pays extraordinary attention to balancing ratios of essential nutrients to one another in order to achieve a synergistic result. Secondly, it pays meticulous attention to combining diversely superior sources of those essential nutrients and balancing their ratios for optimal synergy as well.
Research Studies on vitamin A
Although β-carotene has been considered to promote normal cell acitivity, other types of carotenoids, such as α-carotene, lycopene, lutein, zeaxanthin, cryptoxanthin, etc., may also contribute to promoting normal cell function, since these carotenoids usually co-exist with beta-carotene in green and yellow vegetables and daily food stuffs, and are detectable in human blood and tissues. Ortho-core contains a diversity of carotenoids.Ortho•Core,
Beta carotene and CVD
The role of b-carotene, a-tocopherol, and vitamin C in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) is also controversial. Prospective studies on g-tocopherol and carotenoids other than b-carotene are sparse. A study assessed relations between the intake of different carotenoids, a- and g-tocopherol, and vitamin C with 15-y CVD mortality in elderly men who participated in the Zutphen Elderly Study. Information on diet and potential confounding factors was collected in 1985, 1990, and 1995. In 1985, 559 men (mean age ;72 y) free of chronic diseases were included in the current analysis. After 15 y of follow-up, comprising 5744 person-years, 197 men had died from CVD. After adjustment for age, smoking, and other potential lifestyle and dietary confounders, relative risks (RR) (95% CI) of CVD death for a 1-SD increase in intake were 0.81 (0.66–0.99) for a-carotene and 0.80 (0.66–0.97) for b-carotene. Carrots were the primary source of a- and b-carotene and their consumption was related to a lower risk of death from CVD (adjusted RR, 0.83; 95% CI ¼ 0.68–1.00). Intakes of carotenoids other than a- and b-carotene were not associated with CVD mortality, nor were vitamin C and a- and g tocopherol. In conclusion the study found that dietary intakes of a-carotene and b-carotene are inversely associated with CVD mortality in elderly men.
Metabolic syndrome and beta carotene
A study found that higher total carotenoid intakes, mainly those of b-carotene and lycopene, were associated with a lower prevalence of metabolic syndrome and with lower measures of adiposity and serum triglyceride concentrations in middle-aged and elderly men.
Inadequate micronutrient intake among older adults is common despite the increased prevalence of fortified/enriched foods in the American diet. Although many older adults take multivitamin supplements in an effort to compensate, there are not many studies examining the benefits of this behavior. One study investigated whether a daily multivitamin/mineral supplement can improve micronutrient status, plasma antioxidant capacity and cytokine production in healthy, free-living older adults already consuming a fortified diet. It was found that Supplementation with a multivitamin formulated at about 100% Daily Value can decrease the prevalence of suboptimal vitamin status in older adults and improve their micronutrient status to levels associated with reduced risk for several chronic diseases.
Multivitamins and their impact on behavior
Numerous studies conducted in juvenile correctional institutions have reported that violence and serious antisocial behavior have been cut almost in half after implementing nutrient-dense diets that are consistent with the World Health Organization’s guidelines for fats, sugar, starches, and protein ratios. Two controlled trials tested whether the cause of the behavioral improvements was psychological or biological in nature by comparing the behavior of offenders who either received placebos or vitamin-mineral supplements designed to provide the micronutrient equivalent of a well-balanced diet. These randomized trials reported that institutionalized offenders, aged 13 to 17 years or 18 to 26 years, when given active tablets produced about 40% less violent and other antisocial behavior than the placebo controls. However, generalization could not be made to typical schoolchildren without a controlled trial examining violence and antisocial behavior in public schools.
A study was carried out to determine if schoolchildren, aged 6 to 12 years, who are given low dose vitamin-mineral tablets will produce significantly less violence and antisocial behavior in school than classmates who are given placebos. Of the 468 students randomly assigned to active or placebo tablets, the 80 who were disciplined at least once between September 1st and May 1st served as the research sample. During intervention, the 40 children who received active tablets were disciplined, on average, 1 time each, a 47% lower mean rate of antisocial behavior than the 1.875 times each for the 40 children who received placebos (95% confidence interval, 29% to 65%, < 5 .020). The children who took active tablets produced lower rates of antisocial behavior in 8 types of recorded infractions: threats/fighting, vandalism, being disrespectful, disorderly conduct, defiance, obscenities, refusal to work or serve, endangering others, and nonspecified offenses.
Poor nutritional habits in children that lead to low concentrations of water-soluble vitamins in blood, impair brain function and subsequently cause violence and other serious antisocial behavior. Correction of nutrient intake, either through a well-balanced diet or low-dose vitamin-mineral supplementation, corrects the low concentrations of vitamins in blood, improves brain function and subsequently lowers institutional violence and antisocial behavior by almost half.
Multivitamins and the brain
The effect of vitamin-mineral supplementation on the intelligence of American schoolchildren: a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Many medical, nutrition, and education professionals have long suspected that poor diet impairs the academic performance of Western schoolchildren; academic performance often improves after improved diet. However, others have suggested that such academic gains may be due to psychologic effects rather than nutrition. To resolve this issue, two independent research teams conducted randomized trials in which children were given placebos or low-dose vitamin-mineral tablets designed to raise nutrient intake to the equivalent of a well-balanced diet. Both teams reported significantly greater gains in nonverbal intelligence among the supplemented groups. The findings were important because of the apparent inadequacy of diet they revealed and the magnitude of the potential for increased intelligence. However, none of the ten subsequent replications, or the two original trials, were without limitations leaving this issue in controversy. A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial using stratified randomization within each teacher’s class based on preintervention nonverbal intelligence was used.
The study confirmed that vitamin-mineral supplementation modestly raised the nonverbal intelligence of some groups of Western schoolchildren by 2 to 3 points but not that of most Western schoolchildren, presumably because the majority were already adequately nourished. This study also confirms that vitamin-mineral supplementation markedly raises the non-verbal intelligence of a minority of Western schoolchildren, presumably because they were too poorly nourished before supplementation for optimal brain function. Because nonverbal intelligence is closely associated with academic performance, it follows that schools with children who consume substandard diets should find it difficult to produce academic performance equal to those schools with children who consume diets that come closer to providing the nutrients suggested in the U.S. RDA. The parents of schoolchildren whose academic performance is substandard would be well advised to seek a nutritionally oriented physician for assessment of their children’s nutritional status as a possible etiology.
Vitamins and homocysteine level
Changes in nutritional status during supplementation with a high-potency multivitamin-mineral supplement were examined in 22 physically active men randomly assigned to take a supplement (n = 11) or placebo (n = 11) for approximately 12 wk. Four-day dietary intakes, blood concentrations, and urinary excretions of selected vitamins and minerals were measured before, during (approximately 6 and 12 wk), and after supplementation. No changes were observed in blood concentrations of vitamins A and C and measures of zinc, magnesium, and calcium status; the supplement provided less than 300% of the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) of these nutrients. In contrast, blood concentrations of thiamin, riboflavin, vitamins B-6 and B-12, pantothenate, and biotin increased significantly by 6 wk to values that were maintained until the end of the supplementation. These vitamins were provided in amounts that ranged from 396% (biotin) to 6250% (vitamin B-6) of the RDA. Urinary excretions of these vitamins also increased during supplementation and both blood and urine values returned to presupplementation concentrations at approximately 13.5 wk postsupplementation.
Elevated homocysteine has been identified as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease. Although multivitamin use has been associated with low plasma homocysteine concentrations in several observational studies, no clinical trials have been conducted using multivitamin/mineral supplements to lower homocysteine. We determined whether a multivitamin/mineral supplement formulated at about 100% Daily Value will further lower homocysteine concentration and improve B-vitamin status in healthy older adults already consuming a diet fortified with folic acid. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 80 free-living men and women aged 50-87 y with total plasma homocysteine concentrations of > or =8 micromol/L received either a multivitamin/mineral supplement or placebo for 56 d while consuming their usual diet. After the 8-wk treatment, subjects taking the supplement had significantly higher B-vitamin status and lower homocysteine concentration than controls (P: < 0.01). Plasma folate, pyridoxal phosphate (PLP) and vitamin B-12 concentrations were increased 41.6, 36.5 and 13.8%, respectively, in the supplemented group, whereas no changes were observed in the placebo group. The mean homocysteine concentration decreased 9.6% in the supplemented group (P: < 0.001) and was unaffected in the placebo group. There were no significant changes in dietary intake during the intervention. Multivitamin/mineral supplementation can improve B-vitamin status and reduce plasma homocysteine concentration in older adults already consuming a folate-fortified diet.Ortho•Core,
Multivitamins on the market often fall into several traps:Ortho•Core,
Ortho•Core is carefully formulated to provide balanced ratios, safe and effective doses, and the most bioavailable forms of nutrients, all supported by research. The formula is then enhanced with some of the most biologically active and important antioxidants and phytonutrients known in order to make AOR’s Ortho•Core your one-stop multi for maintaining good health.Ortho•Core,
Baggio E, Gandini R, Plancher AC, et al. Italian multicenter study on the safety and efficacy of coenzyme Q10 as adjunctive therapy in heart failure. Mol Aspects Med. 1994; 15(Suppl):287-294.
Hagen TM, Ingersoll RT, Lykkesfeldt J, Liu J, Wehr CM, Vinarsky V, Bartholomew JC, Ames AB. (R)-alpha-lipoic acid-supplemented old rats have improved mitochondrial function, decreased oxidative damage, and increased metabolic rate. FASEB J. 1999 Feb;13(2):411-8.Ortho•Core,
Kasahara T, Kato T. Nutritional biochemistry: A new redox-cofactor vitamin for mammals. Nature. 2003. April 24;422(6934):832.
Liu C, Wang XD, Bronson RT, Smith DE, Krinsky NI, Russell RM. “Effects of physiological versus pharmacological beta-carotene supplementation on cell proliferation and histopathological changes in the lungs of cigarette smoke-exposed ferrets. Carcinogenesis. 2000 Dec;21(12): 2245-53
Mukhtar H, Ahmad N. Tea polyphenols: prevention of cancer and optimizing health. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000 Jun; 71(6 Suppl): 1698S-702S.
Paolini M, Antelli A, Pozzetti L, Spetlova D, Perocco P, Valgimigli L, Pedulli GF, Cantelli-Forti G. “Induction of cytochrome P450 enzymes and over-generation of oxygen radicals in beta-carotene supplemented rats.” Carcinogenesis. 2001 Sep; 22(9); 1483-95
Rygh O. Reserches sur les oligo elements. “I. Des l’importance du strontium, du baryum, du thallium et du zinc dans les scorbuts.” Bull Soc Chim Biol. 1949;31:1052. Cited by (17, 19)
Sawaki K, et al. (2002) Sports performance benefits from taking natural astaxanthin characterized by visual activity and muscle improvements in humans. Journal of Clinical Therapeutics & Medicine 18(9): 73-88.
Stites TE, Rucker RB. “Physiological importance of quinoenzymes and the O-quinone family of cofactors.’ J Nutr. 2000 Apr;130(4):719-27
Yuan H, Gong A, Young CY. “Involvement of transcription factor Sp1 in quercetin-mediated inhibitory effect on the androgen receptor in human prostate cancer cells.” Carcinogenesis. 2005 Apr;26(4):793-801. Epub 2005 Jan 20.Ortho•Core,
Q: Does AOR use L-5-MTHF or D-5-MTHF? Or both?
A: D-5-MTHF is a more highly absorbed, ineffective and potentially harmful version of the activated folate 5-MTHF that is actually banned in Europe. Some products exist on the market that are a 50/50 mix of the L- and D-forms, which have questionable efficacy, and may be harmful. In accordance with AOR’s philosophy and quality control standards, all of AOR’s 5-MTHF products contain only the highest purity L-5-MTHF on the market, which is guaranteed to be greater than 99% L-5-MTHF. Look for the labels of all of AOR’s products containing 5-MTHF to be updated in the near future with this information.Ortho•Core,
Q: What is the best multi vitamin available through AOR?
A: ORTHO CORE is AOR most advanced and most complete multivitamin and features more than 50 nutrients that have been shown to be beneficial for health. Multi Basics 3 is a 3 day multi vitamin/mineral with some phytonutrients, and Essential Mix is a powdered multivitamin/mineral.Ortho•Core,
Q: Will tocotrienols be The Vitamin E for the New Millennium?
A: Yes! Many research scientists and nutritionists, backed by extensive published research papers, agree that tocotrienols, being a natural more potent vitamin E and have many additional biological benefits over the normal tocopherols, will be the vitamin E for the 21st century. There are researchers who remarked that instead of focusing on tocopherols, people should start taking tocotrienols as the better vitamin E.Ortho•Core,
Q: Which of the proven health benefits of tocotrienols were carried out clinically in humans?
A: The various human studies and dosage used in these studies specifically for a therapeutic condition are: 1. Since the early 1990s, there were hints that antioxidants could have some effect in showing regression of arteriosclerosis (improvement of artery health and blood flow). Dr Anthony Verlangieri of the Atherosclerosis Laboratory at the University of Mississippi published his research in reversing atherosclerosis in monkeys with antioxidant nutrients. A report in JAMA in 1995 showed that antioxidant vitamins slowed progression of coronary atherosclerosis. In a three-year, double-blind clinical study at the Kenneth Jordan Heart Foundation, New Jersey, on 50 patients with Carotid Stenosis (blockage of the carotid artery, the main artery that supplies blood to the brain), patients were given a supplementation of 240mg palm tocotrienol complex per day. Within 6 months, 92% of the patients had an improvement in their blood flow through the carotid artery, indicating the ability of palm tocotrienol complex to reverse artery blockage and improve artery health. 2. Palm tocotrienol complex has been proven by numerous human and animal studies to have the ability to inhibit cholesterol production in the liver. Tocotrienols are potent and effective natural antioxidant nutrients to have the ability to inhibit the key enzyme that is responsible for cholesterol production in the body: HMG Co A Reductase. In human cholesterol lowering human studies, mild hypercholesterolemia patients were given a supplementation of 200mg palm based tocotrienols per day. Significant reduction of total serum cholesterol was observed within 6 to 8 weeks. The reduction of total serum cholesterol was between 15-33% whereas the HDL level was no affected. In another cross-over human study carried out at the Science University of Malaysia, randomly picked subjects with uncontrolled diet was given supplementation of 100mg palm tocotrienols per day. Within 8 to 10 weeks, there was a significant reduction of 10-12% of total cholesterol level in the group that received tocotrienols. 3. There are four reputable research centers that are currently furthering their research on the ability of palm tocotrienol complex to inhibit both the estrogen positive and negative human breast cancer cells. The research centers are University of Reading, UK, University of Louisiana, University of Western Ontario, and Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB). At the moment, research is focused on elucidating the mechanism of inhibition of breast cancer cells by tocotrienols, In addition, the University of Wisconsin is currently carrying out studies on the inhibitory effect of tocotrienols on hepatocarcinogenesis.Ortho•Core,
Q: What are the proven health benefits of tocotrienols?
A: The proven additional health benefits (by over 128 research papers in human, animal models and in-vitro) are: 1. Palm tocotrienol complex has been shown by the Kenneth Jordan Heart Foundation (US) in a double-blind human study to have the ability to reverse arteriosclerosis. Palm based tocotrienols have the ability to reverse blockage of the carotid artery and hence, reduce the risk of stroke and arteriosclerosis. 2. Tocotrienols have been shown by human and animal studies to have the ability to reduce the production of total serum cholesterols. They inhibit the enzyme HMG-CoA Reductase in the liver that is responsible for the production of cholesterols. Tocopherols have no effect on serum cholesterol. 3. Tocotrienols are very much more potent antioxidant than tocopherols. It has been shown by published research paper that alpha-tocotrienol is 40-60 times more potent than alpha-tocopherol in the prevention of lipid peroxidation. Delta-tocotrienol is the most potent of all the commercially available tocotrienols. 4. In a recent article published in Clin. Exp. Hypertens. (1999), found that tocotrienol is an effective natural agent to prevent increased in blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats. It also enhanced total antioxidant status in plasma and blood vessels. 5. Tocotrienols especially delta and gamma-tocotrienols have been shown to inhibit certain type of cancers especially human breast cancer cells. Palm based tocotrienols have been shown by four different research centers in the world to have the ability to inhibit both the estrogen positive and estrogen negative breast cancer cells. In those studies, alpha tocopherol has no effect at all on human breast cancer cells. 6. Palm tocotrienol complex has been proven to inhibit platelet aggregation. Alpha tocopherol does not. 7. Tocotrienols, with their unsaturated side chain, allow them to pass through the membrane bi-layer (mainly made up of unsaturated fatty acid) in a more efficient manner and faster rate compared to the all saturated tocopherol. Hence facilitating the absorption of tocotrienols. 8. Palm tocotrienol complex has also been shown by the University of California, Berkeley to be effective in preventing protein oxidation and lipid peroxidation after a strenuous bout of exercise. Athletes especially body builders and sprinters generate tremendous amount of free radicals in their body. Hence, tocotrienols being a very potent antioxidant and vitamin E protects athletes and body builders against protein and lipid peroxidation.Ortho•Core,
Q: There is a significant difference in ratio of tocotrienols to tocopherols in palm based tocotrienols (3.5:1) compared to rice based tocotrienols (1:1). So have most studies with tocotrienols used palm based tocotrienols or rice based tocotrienols?
A: Almost all of the in-vitro, animal, human studies published so far, on the health benefits of tocotrienols was carried out with palm tocotrienol Complex. Palm tocotrienol complex has very different chemistry and contents from rice based tocotrienols. The ratio of tocotrienols to tocopherol in palm tocotrienol complex is very much higher at 3.5 to 1.0. In rice base tocotrienols, it is approximately 1.0 to 1.0. In addition, palm based tocotrienols contains additional phytonutrients such as phytosterols (which have been shown to prevent absorption of cholesterol in the intestine) and plant squalene (strong antioxidant) that are naturally extracted together with tocotrienols from the fruits of oil palm.Ortho•Core,
Q: What should I look for when purchasing tocotrienols?
A: Look for a natural, palm derived tocotrienol complex product. If minimally processed, it should also contain the other phyto-nutrients found naturally in palm oil. These include phytosterols, squalene and mixed carotenoids, thus offering a “platter” of a natural and wholesome phyto-nutrient complex. Other rice-derived tocotrienols are also available in the market.Ortho•Core,
Q: Can the Vitamin K dose of 120 mcg be exceeded?
A: Health Canada regards only a maximum of 120 mcg of Vitamin K necessary for good health. This dose does contribute to good bone and arterial health. Other doses have been clinically studied, and are accepted in other countries.Ortho•Core,
Q: Are Vitamin K1 and K2 different in their biological effects?
A: Vitamin K2 is better absorbed than Vitamin K1 but otherwise both function in the same manner. MK-4 is converted from K1 in the first place so there is likely some sort of positive feedback mechanism that is yet to be understood. The conversion occurs in the tissues which have adequate stores of MK-4, which is a form of vitamin K2.Ortho•Core,
Q: Does calcium really increase the risk of heart disease and contribute to arterial plaque?
A: Some meta-analyses have been done on calcium salts (ie. calcium citrate, calcium carbonate, etc.) showing that these sources of calcium increased the risk of heart disease. Calcium salts tend to release very quickly into the blood stream. Since calcium is one component of arterial plaque, the theory is that excessive calcium in the blood can cause more arterial calcification. This risk has only been shown to increase at the start of supplementation when the body was adjusting to the supplement. In addition, food sources of calcium are absorbed more slowly into the bloodstream, are not known to contribute to heart disease and were not even included in these studies. Bone meal, or MCHC, is a “food source” of calcium. Calcium also needs to be taken with Vitamins D and K in order to be absorbed and used effectively. Bone Basics (and Ortho Bone) provide balanced formulas for optimal calcium absorption and effectiveness. Calcium should never be supplemented alone. Finally, a more recent study actually showed that those who supplemented with calcium actually extended their lifespan slightly. The conclusion of the matter is this: everything in balance and moderation.Ortho•Core,
Q: How come any product containing vitamin D3 in powder form does not guarantee that it’s free of soy?
A: Vegetable oil (containing soybean oil) droplets surround the vitamin D3 to help stabilize it, as D3 in a powder form is unstable on its own. Any supplement in powder form containing vitamin D3 will be the same case. This includes all AOR’s multis and bone multis, etc. The amount, however, is tiny (ie. micrograms).Ortho•Core,
Q: How much vitamin D should I take every day?
A: Health Canada does not allow the use of more than 1000 IU of vitamin D per day as a recommended dose in dietary supplements. Higher doses are available as a prescription.Ortho•Core,
Q: Can I get tocotrienols simply from using palm oil in cooking?
A: Refined palm olein (palm cooking oil) has some tocotrienols as well as tocopherols but the levels found are very low, approximately 0.08%. In order to get the amount of tocotrienols (50 mg – 100 mg per day) that medical studies suggest may have a beneficial effect; one would have to consume about 80g – 160g (about one to two tea cup) of palm olein a day. Other cooking oils from corn, soy-bean and sunflower contain virtually no tocotrienols.Ortho•Core,
Q: Can I get enough of tocotrienols from my normal diet / food?
A: Most of the oils and food contain tocopherols but virtually no tocotrienols. Tocotrienols only occur at very low level (below 800ppm) in nature with the highest concentration found in palm oil. Other sources are rice bran, barley, wheat germ, saw palmetto and certain types of nuts and grains. Due to their low level, it is practically impossible to attain the amount of tocotrienols studies suggest may have a beneficial effect, from diet alone. For example, one has to take a cup of palm oil per day to attain this level.Ortho•Core,
Q: Being a vitamin E and since vitamin E is extensively used in cosmetics and personal care products, what proven benefits do tocotrienols have on prevention of skin aging and skin damage by ultra-violet rays?
A: The idea of using tocotrienols in cosmetic and personal care products is fairly new and recent. Being a more potent vitamin E, research scientists especially at the University of California, Berkeley, have started to investigate the additional benefits of tocotrienols over the alpha tocopherol vitamin E in the prevention of skin aging and skin damage. A study conducted at the University of California, Berkeley showed that diet-derived or topically applied tocotrienols preferentially accumulate at the stratum corneum to defend against free radicals generated by exposure to environment agents such as sun ray (UV), ozone, chemicals, etc.Ortho•Core,
Q: Are Tocotrienols safe?
A: Toxicological and pharmacological studies showed that supplementation with palm based tocotrienols up to 2500mg per day per kilogram of body did not produce any significant side effects. Tocotrienols are natural compound found in various food and oils such as palm olein, rice bran oil, wheat germ, barley, etc. They are vitamin E and one may be taking tocotrienols through these normal foods without even realizing it. In addition, tocotrienols have been approved for use in dietary supplements in Australia, Japan, Malaysia, Hong Kong, Singapore, Canada and US.Ortho•Core,
Q: Why don’t tocotrienols have alpha-tocopherol equivalents(ATE) or International Units (IU) of Vitamin E assigned to them?
A: Due to the recent nature of research work with tocotrienols and that scientific evidence supporting the benefits of tocotrienols is relatively new, the FDA has not assigned vitamin E activity to tocotrienols.Ortho•Core,
Q: What can I expect from taking tocotrienols regularly?
A: The effect of antioxidants, and likewise tocotrienols, only become apparent in the long term. Supplementing daily with tocotrienols will result in the reduction in cholesterol level and reduce the risk of free-radical degenerative diseases.Ortho•Core,
Q: Why should anyone take tocotrienols? I’m already taking tocopherol Vitamin E.
A: Individuals interested in enhancing their antioxidant status should take tocotrienols. Most Vitamin E supplements contain only alpha-tocopherol whereas palm based tocotrienols contain tocotrienols, phytosterols (proven to prevent absorption of cholesterol), squalene (a powerful antioxidant) and carotenoids. A combination of all these phytonutrients in which recent research have suggested may be highly effective in the overall maintenance of health.Ortho•Core,
Q: How are tocotrienols absorbed in the body?
A: Tocotrienols are fat soluble. It is absorbed in the same manner as fat, just like other fat-soluble vitamins (A, D and K) and phytonutrients like carotenoids. The absorption of these compounds is dependent on the physiological processes in the stomach and small intestines, induced by food, especially fat intake. Only when sufficient pancreatic juice and bile are secreted to emulsify the fat and fat soluble vitamins do we get satisfactory absorption. Since factors such as foods and fat intake tend to be variable, the absorption of fat-soluble nutrients will also be variable.Ortho•Core,
A: Tocotrienols are naturally present in most plants. They are found mostly in palm oil extracted from palm fruits. Other sources are rice, wheat germ, oat and barley.Ortho•Core,
Q: What are tocotrienols?
A: Tocotrienols are part of the Vitamin E family. Tocotrienols have similar structure to tocopherols (Alpha-Tocopherol as the most common Vitamin E in the market), but contain three double bonds in the carbon side chain of the molecule. The Vitamin E family is comprised of eight different compounds : alpha, beta, gamma and delta of both tocotrienols and tocopherols.Ortho•Core,
Q: What is Alpha-lipoic Acid and why is your product referred to as R(+)lipoic acid?
A: Alpha-lipoic acid (or sometimes thioctic acid) is the generic term given to lipoic acid that is manufactured in a laboratory. When manufactured, alpha-lipoic acid is chiral, meaning that it is automatically ‘twinned’ into two molecules; the natural R(+) enantiomer that is used by the body, and the artificially twinned S(-) enantiomer. The latter cannot be used by the body and is at best inert, and it comprises 50% of alpha-lipoic acid formulations. AOR’s R(+)lipoic acid consists almost exclusively (approximately 96%) of the natural R(+) enantiomer.Ortho•Core,
Q: What is the breakdown of the various forms of magnesium and calcium in Ortho Core?
A: Per capsule:
Magnesium from Magnesium Ascorbate : 30 mg
Magnesium from Magnesium Monoaspertate: 6 mg
Magnesium from Magnesium Oxide: 188 mg
Calcium from Calcium Citrate Malate: 178 mg
Calcium from Calcium Carbonate: 114 mg
Q: Why are tocotrienols much more expensive than tocopherols?
A: In nature, the level of tocotrienols is at such a low level (part per million level) that is it takes a huge amount of the raw material to extract out 1kg of tocotrienols. For example, for every 1000kg of soy fatty acid distillate, one can extract out about 70kg of the tocopherols. In comparison, every 1000kg of palm oil, one can only theoretically extract out 0.5kg of tocotrienols. In addition, the process to extract tocotrienols by molecular distillation is an expensive process compared to the convention distillation processes.Ortho•Core,
Q: Why is the combination of vitamin C and bioflavonoids better than simply taking extra vitamin C?
A: Simply stated, the presence of bioflavonoids makes vitamin C supplementation that much more efficient, since bioflavonoids and vitamin C mutually enhance many of each other’s biological activities.Ortho•Core,
Q: How much Boron is safe to take per day?
A: From the Health Canada statement on Boron use, it appears that individuals living in locations with Boron concentrations up to 29 mg/L show no deleterious effects. Aside from that, Health Canada has a “chronic reference dose” for multivitamins (0.7 mg/day) and a maximum chronic dose for bone mineralization (osteoporosis) of 3.36 mg/day. Boron has also been used in the long term treatment of epilepsy, at dosages far higher than 3 mg/day. Basically, long term use of boron at low amounts should be perfectly healthy.Ortho•Core,
Q: Can folate cause breast cancer?
A: Research suggests that too low folic acid can be related to certain conditions and cancers while high amounts of folic acid can be related to other types of cancers. Other studies show that high doses of folate can be beneficial in other cases. The evidence is inconclusive. The best suggestion is to use folate in moderation at the recommended dietary intake levels.Ortho•Core,
Q: Does R-Lipoic Acid need to be refrigerated?
A: No, the product is stable at room temperature. R+lipoic acid has a low melting temperature (46-49C) and was initially thought to need refrigeration. Stability studies have since shown that the product can be kept at room temperature.Ortho•Core,
The effects of 30 days resveratrol supplementation on adipose tissue morphology and gene expression patterns in obese men.
Int J Obes (Lond). 2013 Aug 20.
Konings E, Timmers S, Boekschoten MV, Goossens GH, Jocken JW, Afman LA, Müller M, Schrauwen P, Mariman EC, Blaak EE.
Polyphenolic compounds, such as resveratrol, have recently received widespread interest because of their ability to mimic effects of calorie restriction. The objective of the present study was to gain more insight into the effects of 30 days resveratrol supplementation on adipose tissue morphology and underlying processes. Eleven healthy obese men were supplemented with placebo and resveratrol for 30 days (150 mg per day), separated by a 4-week washout period in a double-blind randomized crossover design. A postprandial abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsy was collected to assess adipose tissue morphology and gene expression using microarray analysis. Resveratrol significantly decreased adipocyte size, with a shift toward a reduction in the proportion of large and very-large adipocytes and an increase in small adipocytes. Microarray analysis revealed downregulation of Wnt and Notch signaling pathways and upregulation of pathways involved in cell cycle regulation after resveratrol supplementation, suggesting enhanced adipogenesis. Furthermore, lysosomal/phagosomal pathway and transcription factor EB were upregulated reflecting an alternative pathway of lipid breakdown by autophagy. Further research is necessary to investigate whether resveratrol improves adipose tissue function.
Tocotrienols: Vitamin E beyond tocopherols.
Life Sci. 2006 Feb 2;
Sen CK, Khanna S, Roy S.
Laboratory of Molecular Medicine, Department of Surgery, Davis Heart and Lung Research Institute, The Ohio State University Medical Center, Columbus, Ohio 43210, United States. In nature, eight substances have been found to have vitamin E activity: alpha-, beta-, gamma- and delta-tocopherol; and alpha-, beta-, gamma- and delta-tocotrienol. Yet, of all papers on vitamin E listed in PubMed less than 1% relate to tocotrienols. The abundance of alpha-tocopherol in the human body and the comparable efficiency of all vitamin E molecules as antioxidants, led biologists to neglect the non-tocopherol vitamin E molecules as topics for basic and clinical research. Recent developments warrant a serious reconsideration of this conventional wisdom. Tocotrienols possess powerful neuroprotective, anti-cancer and cholesterol lowering properties that are often not exhibited by tocopherols. Current developments in vitamin E research clearly indicate that members of the vitamin E family are not redundant with respect to their biological functions. alpha-Tocotrienol, gamma-tocopherol, and delta-tocotrienol have emerged as vitamin E molecules with functions in health and disease that are clearly distinct from that of alpha-tocopherol. At nanomolar concentration, alpha-tocotrienol, not alpha-tocopherol, prevents neurodegeneration. On a concentration basis, this finding represents the most potent of all biological functions exhibited by any natural vitamin E molecule. An expanding body of evidence support that members of the vitamin E family are functionally unique. In recognition of this fact, title claims in manuscripts should be limited to the specific form of vitamin E studied. For example, evidence for toxicity of a specific form of tocopherol in excess may not be used to conclude that high-dosage “vitamin E” supplementation may increase all-cause mortality. Such conclusion incorrectly implies that tocotrienols are toxic as well under conditions where tocotrienols were not even considered. The current state of knowledge warrants strategic investment into the lesser known forms of vitamin E. This will enable prudent selection of the appropriate vitamin E molecule for studies addressing a specific need.
Effect of a multivitamin and mineral supplement on infection and quality of life. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.
Ann Intern Med. 2003 Mar 4;138(5):365-71.
Barringer TA, Kirk JK, Santaniello AC, Foley KL, Michielutte R.
BACKGROUND: Use of multivitamin and mineral supplements is common among U.S. adults, yet few well-designed trials have assessed the reputed benefits.
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of a daily multivitamin and mineral supplement on infection and well-being.
DESIGN: Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.
SETTING: Primary care clinics at two medical centers in North Carolina.
PARTICIPANTS: 130 community-dwelling adults stratified by age (45 to 64 years or >or=65 years) and presence of type 2 diabetes mellitus.
INTERVENTION: Multivitamin and mineral supplement or placebo taken daily for 1 year.
MEASUREMENTS: Incidence of participant-reported symptoms of infection, incidence of infection-associated absenteeism, and scores on the physical and mental health subscales of the Medical Outcomes Study 12-Item Short Form.
RESULTS: More participants receiving placebo reported an infectious illness over the study year than did participants receiving multivitamin and mineral supplements (73% vs. 43%; P < 0.001). Infection-related absenteeism was also higher in the placebo group than in the treatment group (57% vs. 21%; P < 0.001). Participants with type 2 diabetes mellitus (n = 51) accounted for this finding. Among diabetic participants receiving placebo, 93% reported an infection compared with 17% of those receiving supplements (P < 0.001). Medical Outcomes Study 12-Item Short Form scores did not differ between the treatment and placebo groups.
CONCLUSIONS: A multivitamin and mineral supplement reduced the incidence of participant-reported infection and related absenteeism in a sample of participants with type 2 diabetes mellitus and a high prevalence of subclinical micronutrient deficiency. A larger clinical trial is needed to determine whether these findings can be replicated not only in diabetic persons but also in any population with a high rate of suboptimal nutrition or potential underlying disease impairment.
Potent Cancer Chemopreventive Action of Palm Fruit Carotene and Various Kinds of Dietary Carotenoids.
2001 PIPOC International Palm Oil Congress Food Technology & Nutrition Conference.
Michiaki Murakoshi, Hoyoku Nishino
Although β-carotene has been considered to be a key cancer-preventive agent, other types of carotenoids, such as α-carotene, lycopene, lutein, zeaxanthin, cryptoxanthin, etc., may also contribute to anti-carcinogenic action, since these carotenoids usually co-exist with beta-carotene in green and yellow vegetables and daily food stuffs, and are detectable in human blood and tissues. Therefore, it is of interest to investigate the biological activity of these various kinds of carotenoids more extensively. In the course of the study, we found that palm oil-derived natural carotene (palm fruit carotene), which contains of 60% β-carotene, 30% α-carotene and 10% others (γ-carotene, lycopene, etc.), showed potent anti-carcinogenic activity. Therefore, we compared the inhibitory activity of α-carotene, purified from palm fruit carotene, with that of β-carotene against two-stage mouse lung and skin carcinogenesis, and mouse spontaneous liver carcinogenesis models. α-Carotene showed the stronger anti-carcinogenic activities, than β-carotene, in these three experiments. And we also found that palm fruit carotene showed more stronger inhibitory activity than alpha-carotene on mouse spontaneous liver carcinogenesis.
Thus we have carried out more extensive studies on cancer preventive activities of natural carotenoids in our daily foods, of which lycopene, lutein, zeaxanthin, fucoxanthin, and β-cryproxanthin, etc., were found to have potent anti-carcinogenic activity. Further studies on various natural carotenoids, besides β-carotene, should be continued to obtain greater information about the potential of natural carotenoids in the field of cancer prevention.
Multivitamin/mineral supplementation improves plasma B-vitamin status and homocysteine concentration in healthy older adults consuming a folate-fortified diet.
J Nutr. 2000 Dec;130(12):3090-6.
McKay DL, Perrone G, Rasmussen H, Dallal G, Blumberg JB.
Elevated homocysteine has been identified as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease. Although multivitamin use has been associated with low plasma homocysteine concentrations in several observational studies, no clinical trials have been conducted using multivitamin/mineral supplements to lower homocysteine. We determined whether a multivitamin/mineral supplement formulated at about 100% Daily Value will further lower homocysteine concentration and improve B-vitamin status in healthy older adults already consuming a diet fortified with folic acid. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 80 free-living men and women aged 50-87 y with total plasma homocysteine concentrations of > or =8 micromol/L received either a multivitamin/mineral supplement or placebo for 56 d while consuming their usual diet. After the 8-wk treatment, subjects taking the supplement had significantly higher B-vitamin status and lower homocysteine concentration than controls (P: < 0.01). Plasma folate, pyridoxal phosphate (PLP) and vitamin B-12 concentrations were increased 41.6, 36.5 and 13.8%, respectively, in the supplemented group, whereas no changes were observed in the placebo group. The mean homocysteine concentration decreased 9.6% in the supplemented group (P: < 0.001) and was unaffected in the placebo group. There were no significant changes in dietary intake during the intervention. Multivitamin/mineral supplementation can improve B-vitamin status and reduce plasma homocysteine concentration in older adults already consuming a folate-fortified diet.
The effects of a multivitamin/mineral supplement on micronutrient status, antioxidant capacity and cytokine production in healthy older adults consuming a fortified diet.
J Am Coll Nutr. 2000 Oct;19(5):613-21.
McKay DL, Perrone G, Rasmussen H, Dallal G, Hartman W, Cao G, Prior RL, Roubenoff R, Blumberg JB.
BACKGROUND: Inadequate micronutrient intake among older adults is common despite the increased prevalence of fortified/enriched foods in the American diet. Although many older adults take multivitamin supplements in an effort to compensate, studies examining the benefits of this behavior are absent.
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether a daily multivitamin/mineral supplement can improve micronutrient status, plasma antioxidant capacity and cytokine production in healthy, free-living older adults already consuming a fortified diet.
METHODS: An eight-week double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial among 80 adults aged 50 to 87 years (mean = 66.5 +/- 8.6 years).
RESULTS: Multivitamin treatment significantly increased (p
CONCLUSIONS: Supplementation with a multivitamin formulated at about 100% Daily Value can decrease the prevalence of suboptimal vitamin status in older adults and improve their micronutrient status to levels associated with reduced risk for several chronic diseases.
The effect of vitamin-mineral supplementation on juvenile delinquency among American schoolchildren: a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial.
J Altern Complement Med. 2000 Feb;6(1):31-5.
Schoenthaler SJ, Bier ID.
CONTEXT: Numerous studies conducted in juvenile correctional institutions have reported that violence and serious antisocial behavior have been cut almost in half after implementing nutrient-dense diets that are consistent with the World Health Organization’s guidelines for fats, sugar, starches, and protein ratios. Two controlled trials tested whether the cause of the behavioral improvements was psychological or biological in nature by comparing the behavior of offenders who either received placebos or vitamin-mineral supplements designed to provide the micronutrient equivalent of a well-balanced diet. These randomized trials reported that institutionalized offenders, aged 13 to 17 years or 18 to 26 years, when given active tablets produced about 40% less violent and other antisocial behavior than the placebo controls. However, generalization could not be made to typical schoolchildren without a controlled trial examining violence and antisocial behavior in public schools.
OBJECTIVES: To determine if schoolchildren, aged 6 to 12 years, who are given low dose vitamin-mineral tablets will produce significantly less violence and antisocial behavior in school than classmates who are given placebos. DESIGN: A stratified randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with pretest and post-test measures of antisocial behavior on school property.
SETTINGS AND SUBJECTS: Two “working class,” primarily Hispanic elementary schools in Phoenix, Arizona. Approximately half of the potential schoolchildren participated, i.e., 468 students aged 6 to 12 years.
INTERVENTION: Daily vitamin-mineral supplementation at 50% of the U.S. recommended daily allowance (RDA) for 4 months versus placebo. The supplement was designed to raise vitamin-mineral intake up to the levels currently recommended by the National Academy of Sciences for children aged 6 to 11 years.
OUTCOME MEASURE: Violent and nonviolent delinquency as measured by official school disciplinary records.
RESULTS: Of the 468 students randomly assigned to active or placebo tablets, the 80 who were disciplined at least once between September 1st and May 1st served as the research sample. During intervention, the 40 children who received active tablets were disciplined, on average, 1 time each, a 47% lower mean rate of antisocial behavior than the 1.875 times each for the 40 children who received placebos (95% confidence interval, 29% to 65%, < 5 .020). The children who took active tablets produced lower rates of antisocial behavior in 8 types of recorded infractions: threats/fighting, vandalism, being disrespectful, disorderly conduct, defiance, obscenities, refusal to work or serve, endangering others, and nonspecified offenses.
CONCLUSION: Poor nutritional habits in children that lead to low concentrations of water-soluble vitamins in blood, impair brain function and subsequently cause violence and other serious antisocial behavior. Correction of nutrient intake, either through a well-balanced diet or low-dose vitamin-mineral supplementation, corrects the low concentrations of vitamins in blood, improves brain function and subsequently lowers institutional violence and antisocial behavior by almost half. This paper adds to the literature by enabling previous research to be generalized from older incarcerated subjects with a history of antisocial behavior to a normal population of younger children in an educational setting.
Requirements and toxicity of essential trace elements, illustrated by zinc and copper.
Am J Clin Nutr. 1995 Mar; 61(3 Suppl): 621S-624S.
Early signs of toxicity of essential trace elements are important. Some trace elements are available over-the-counter (OTC) and/or are present at industrial waste sites. Physicochemically similar trace elements compete for ligands, impairing functions, which is exemplified by the zinc-copper antagonism described long ago by Van Campen, Hill and Matrone, and Klevay. Intestinal absorption of copper is inhibited by zinc. Thus risk of copper deficiency is increased when the molar ratio of zinc to copper (Zn:Cu) is high. As shown by experiments, copper deficiency can occur in humans. Manifestations include decreased erythrocyte copper-zinc superoxide dismutase, increased low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol, decreased high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol, decreased glucose clearance, decreased methionine and leucine enkephalins, and abnormal cardiac function. Calculation of a preliminary reference dose for OTC zinc that assumed high bioavailability and uncertain copper intakes established 9 mg as a safe amount for 60-kg adults.
The effect of 7 to 8 months of vitamin/mineral supplementation on the vitamin and mineral status of athletes.
Int J Sport Nutr. 1992 Jun;2(2):123-34.
Telford RD, Catchpole EA, Deakin V, McLeay AC, Plank AW.
Blood indicators of eight vitamins (B1, B2, B6, C, E, A, B12, folate) and six minerals (Cu, Mg, Zn, Ca, P, Al) were measured in 86 athletes before and after a 7- to 8-month period of training. During this period half consumed a multivitamin/mineral supplement and a matched group took a placebo. Following the supplementation period, blood biochemical indicators of B1, B6, B12, and folate status all increased but there were no significant effects of supplementation on B2, C, E, and A, or on the blood levels of any of the minerals. The supplementation had no effect on red or white cell counts or on hemoglobin levels. Irrespective of the supplementation, some blood measures varied according to sex, females evidencing significantly higher values than males for vitamins C, E, copper, magnesium, and aluminium, with B2 being higher in males. It is concluded that 7 to 8 months of multivitamin/mineral supplementation increased the blood nutritional status of some vitamins but did not affect any blood mineral levels, and that some blood nutritional indicators may vary according to sex.Ortho•Core,